MR-guided cardiovascular interventions

  • Elmar Spuentrup
  • Arno Buecker


In addition to the diagnostic evaluation of the peripheral and coronary arteries, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is also an appealing method for MR-guided interventions, because there are variable advantages using MR when compared to X-ray guidance: MRA displays the vessel lumen without the need of contrast agents, it does not utilize ionizing radiation and it offers a superior soft tissue contrast. The tomogaphic nature of MR imaging enables vessel display without overlay of other structures. In addition to the vessel lumen, the vessel wall can also be assessed which allows for soft plaque visualization in patients without lumen narrowing [84, 96]. This may be helpful for guidance of vascular interventions. Finally, functional studies including flow quantification can be performed.


Magnetic Resonance Angiography Superior Soft Tissue Contrast Continuous Data Acquisition Nitinol Guidewire Plaque Visualization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ackerman JL, Offutt MC, Buxton RB, Brady TJ (1986) Rapid 3D tracking of small RF coils. Proceed Inter Soc Magn Reson Med (abstract) Vol 2:1131Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adam G, Neuerburg J, Bucker A et al (1997) Interventional magnetic resonance. Initial clinical experience with a 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance system combined with c-arm fluoroscopy. Invest Radiol 32:191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atalay MK, Poncelet BP, Kantor HL, Brady TJ, Weisskoff RM (2001) Cardiac susceptibility artifacts arising from the heart-lung interface. Magn Reson Med 45:341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amano Y, Ishihara M, Hayashi H et al (1999) Metallic artifacts of coronary and iliac arteries stents in MR angiography and contrast-enhanced CT. Clin Imaging 23:85–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bakker CJ, Bhagwandien R, Moerland MA, Fuderer M (1993) Susceptibility artifacts in 2DFT spin-echo and gradient-echo imaging: the cylinder model revisited. Magn Reson Imaging 11: 539–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bakker CJ, Hoogeveen RM, Hurtak WF, van Vaals JJ, Viergever MA, Mali WP (1997) MR-guided endovascular interventions: susceptibility-based catheter and near-real-time imaging technique. Radiology 202:273–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bakker CJ, Hoogeveen RM, Weber J, van Vaals J J, Viergever MA, Mali WP (1996) Visualization of dedicated catheters using fast scanning techniques with potential for MR-guided vascular interventions. Magn Reson Med 36:816–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bakker CJ, van der Weide R, Smits HF (1999) Facilities for monitoring blood flow during MR-guided diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. J Magn Reson Imaging 10:845–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartels LW, Bakker CJ, Viergever MA (2002) Improved lumen visualization in metallic vascular implants by reducing RF artifacts. Magn Reson Med 47:171–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bartels LW, Bos C, van der Weide R, Smits HF, Bakker CJ, Viergever MA (2000) Placement of an inferior vena cava filter in a pig guided by high-resolution MR fluoroscopy at 1.5 T. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bartels LW, Smits HF, Bakker CJ, Viergever MA (2001) MR imaging of vascular stents: effects of susceptibility, flow, and radiofrequency eddy currents. J Vase Interv Radiol 12:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Botnar RM, Stuber M, Danias PG, Kissinger KV, Manning WJ (1999) Improved coronary artery definition with T2-weighted free-breathing 3D-coronary MRA. Circulation 99:3139–3148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Botnar RM, Stuber M, Kissinger KV, Kim WY, Spuentrup E, Manning WJ (2000) Noninvasive coronary vessel wall and plaque imaging with magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 102: 2582–2587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brasch RC (1992) New directions in the development of MR imaging contrast media. Radiology 183:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buchli R, Boesiger P, Meier D (1988) Heating effects of metallic implants by MRI examinations. Magn Reson Med 7:255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buecker A, Adam G, Neuerburg JM, et al (1998) Real-time MRI with radial k-radial scanning technique for control of angiographic interventions. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 169:542–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buecker A, Adam GB, Neuerburg JM et al (2002) Simultaneous real-time visualization of the catheter tip and vascular anatomy for MR-guided PTA of iliac arteries in an animal model. J Magn Reson Imaging 16:201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buecker A, Neuerburg J, Adam G et al (2000) MR-guidance of TIPS procedures performed at 1.5T. Eur Radiol 10:171Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buecker A, Neuerburg JM, Adam G et al (1998) Stent placement with real time MRI guidance: initial animal experiment experiences. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 169:655–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buecker A, Neuerburg JM, Adam GB et al (2001) Real-time MR Guidance for inferior vena cava filter placement in an animal model. J Vase Interv Radiol 12:753–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buecker A, Neuerburg JM, Adam GB et al (2000) Real-time MR fluoroscopy for MR-guided iliac artery stent placement. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:616–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buecker A, Spuentrup E, Grabitz R, Freudenthal F, Schaeffter T, van Vaals JJ, Gunther W (2002) Realtime-MR guidance for placement of a self-made fully MR-compatible atrial septal occluder: in vitro test. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 174:283–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buecker A, Spuentrup E, Grabitz R et al (2002) Magnetic resonance-guided placement of atrial septal closure device in animal model of patent foramen ovale. Circulation 106:511–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buecker A, Spuentrup E, Ruebben A, Gunther RW (2002) Artifact-free in-stent lumen visualization by standard magnetic resonance angiography using a new metallic magnetic resonance imaging stent. Circulation 105:1772–1775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coutts GA, Gilderdale DJ, Chui M, Kasuboski L, DeSouza NM (1998) Integrated and interactive position tracking and imaging of interventional tools and internal devices using small fiducial receiver coils. Magn Reson Med 40:908–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Duerinckx AJ, Atkinson D, Hurwitz R (1998) Assessment of coronary artery patency after stent placement using magnetic resonance angiography. J Magn Reson Imaging 8:896–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duerinckx AJ, Atkinson D, Hurwitz R, Mintorovitch J, Whitney W (1995) Coronary MR angiography after coronary stent placement. AJR Am J Roentgenol 165:662–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dumoulin CL, Souza SP, Darrow RD (1993) Real-time position monitoring of invasive devices using magnetic resonance. Magn Reson Med 29:411–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eggers H, Proksa R (1999) Multiprocessor system for real-time convolution interpolation reconstruction. Proc Int Soc Magn Reson Med 95, Vol 1Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fahrig R, Butts K, Wen Z et al (2001) Truly hybrid interventional MR/X-ray system: investigation of in vivo applications. Acad Radiol 8: 1200–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fayad ZA, Fuster V, Fallon JT et al (2000) Noninvasive in vivo human coronary artery lumen and wall imaging using black-blood magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 102:506–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frahm C, Gehl HB, Lorch H et al (1998) MR-guided placement of a temporary vena cava filter: technique and feasibility. J Magn Reson Imaging 8:105–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Glover GH, Pauly JM (1992) Projection reconstruction techniques for reduction of motion effects in MRI. Magn Reson Med 28:275–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Glowinski A, Adam G, Bucker A, Neuerburg J, van Vaals JJ, Gunther RW (1997) Catheter visualization using locally induced, actively controlled field inhomogeneities. Magn Reson Med 38:253–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Godart F, Beregi JP, Nicol L et al (2000) MR-guided balloon angioplasty of stenosed aorta: in vivo evaluation using near-standard instruments and a passive tracking technique. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:639–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Green JD, Omary RA, Finn JP et al (2002) Passive catheter tracking using MRI: comparison of conventional and magnetization-prepared FLASH. J Magn Reson Imaging 16:104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guttman MA, McVeigh ER (2001) Techniques for fast stereoscopic MRI. Magn Reson Med 46:317–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hinks RS, Bronskill MJ, Kucharczyk W, Bernstein M, Collick BD, Henkelman RM (1998) MR systems for image-guided therapy. J Magn Reson Imaging 8:19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hug J, Nagel E, Bornstedt A, Schnackenburg B, Oswald H, Fleck E (2000) Coronary arterial stents: safety and artifacts during MR imaging. Radiology 216:781–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Joensuu RP, Sepponen RE, Lamminen AE, Savolainen SE, Standertskjold-Nordenstam CG (1998) High-accuracy MR tracking of interventional devices: the Overhauser marker enhancement (OMEN) technique. Magn Reson Med 40:914–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kee ST, Rhee JS, Butts K et al (1999) Gary J Becker Young Investigator Award. MR-guided transjugular portosystemic shunt placement in a swine model. J Vase Interv Radiol 10:529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kerr AB, Pauly JM, Hu BS et al (1997) Real-time interactive MRI on a conventional scanner. Magn Reson Med 38:355–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim RJ, Wu E, Rafael A et al (2000) The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify reversible myocardial dysfunction. N Engl J Med 343:1445–1453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kivelitz D, Wagner S, Hansel J et al (2001) The active magnetic resonance imaging stent (AMRIS): initial experimental in vivo results with locally amplified MR angiography and flow measurements. Invest Radiol 36:625–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Klemm T, Duda S, Machann J et al (2000) MR imaging in the presence of vascular stents: A systematic assessment of artifacts for various stent orientations, sequence types, and field strengths. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:606–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Konings MK, Bartels LW, Smits HF, Bakker CJ (2000) Heating around intravascular guidewires by resonating RF waves. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Konings MK, Bartels LW, van Swol CF, Bakker CJ (2001) Development of an MR-safe tracking catheter with a laser-driven tip coil. J Magn Reson Imaging 13:131–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ladd ME, Quick HH (2000) Reduction of resonant RF heating in intravascular catheters using coaxial chokes. Magn Reson Med 43:615–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ladd ME, Quick HH, Debatin JF (2000) Interventional MRA and intravascular imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:534–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lardo AC (2000) Real-time magnetic resonance imaging: diagnostic and interventional applications. Pediatr Cardiol 21:80–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lardo AC, McVeigh ER, Jumrussirikul P et al (2000) Visualization and temporal/spatial characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 102:698–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lederman RJ, Guttman MA, Peters DC et al (2002) Catheter-based endomyocardial injection with real-time magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 105:1282–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lenhart M, Volk M, Manke C et al (2000) Stent appearance at contrast-enhanced MR angiography: in vitro examination with 14 stents. Radiology 217:173–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lethimonnier F, Bouligand B, Thouveny F et al (1999) Error assessment due to coronary stents in flow-encoded phase contrast MR angiography: a phantom study. J Magn Reson Imaging 10:899–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Liu CY, Farahani K, Lu DS, Duckwiler G, Oppelt A (2000) Safety of MRI-guided endovascular guidewire applications. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:75–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ludeke KM, Roschmann P, Tischler R (1985) Susceptibility artefacts in NMR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging 3:329–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Maintz D, Kugel H, Schellhammer F, Landwehr P (2001) In vitro evaluation of intravascular stent artifacts in three-dimensional MR angiography. Invest Radiol 36:218–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Manke C, Nitz WR, Djavidani B et al (2001) MR imaging-guided stent placement in iliac arterial stenoses: a feasibility study. Radiology 219:527–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Manke C, Nitz WR, Lenhart M et al (2000) Magnetic resonance monitoring of stent deployment: in vitro evaluation of different stent designs and stent delivery systems. Invest Radiol 35:343–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Meyer JM, Buecker A, Schuermann K, Ruebben A, Guenther RW (2000) MR evaluation of stent patency: in vitro test of 22 metallic stents and the possibility of determining their patency by MR angiography. Invest Radiol 35:739–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meyer JM, Buecker A, Spuentrup E et al (2001) Improved in-stent magnetic resonance angiography with high flip angle excitation. Invest Radiol 36:677–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Muller MF, Siewert B, Stokes KR et al (1994) MR angiographic guidance for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures. J Magn Reson Imaging 4:145–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nayak KS, Pauly JM, Yang PC, Hu BS, Meyer CH, Nishimura DG (2001) Real-time interactive coronary MRA. Magn Reson Med 46:430–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Neuerburg J, Buecker A, Adam G et al (1997) [Cava filter placement under MRI control. Ex-perimental in vitro and in vivo studies]. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 167:418–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nitz WR, Oppelt A, Renz W, Manke C, Lenhart M, Link J (2001) On the heating of linear conductive structures as guide wires and catheters in interventional MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 13:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ocali O, Atalar E (1997) Intravascular magnetic resonance imaging using a loopless catheter antenna. Magn Reson Med 37:112–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Omary RA, Frayne R, Unal O et al (2000) MR-guided angioplasty of renal artery stenosis in a pig model: a feasibility study. J Vase Interv Radiol 11:373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Omary RA, Green JD, Tang R et al (2002) MRI-guided coronary artery catheterization. Book of abstract XIVth Annual International Workshop on MR Angiography (Angio Club) 16:98Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Omary RA, Unal O, Koscielski DS et al (2000) Real-time MR imaging-guided passive catheter tracking with use of gadolinium-filled catheters. J Vase Interv Radiol 11:1079–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Overhauser AW (1953) Polarization of nuclei in metals. Phys Rev 92:411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Paley M, Mayhew JE, Martindale AJ et al (2001) Design and initial evaluation of a low-cost 3-Tesla research system for combined optical and functional MR imaging with interventional capability. J Magn Reson Imaging 13:87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Peters DC, Korosec FR, Grist TM et al (2000) Undersampled projection reconstruction applied to MR angiography. Magn Reson Med 43:91–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pipe JG, Ahunbay E, Menon P (1999) Effects of interleaf order for spiral MRI of dynamic processes. Magn Reson Med 41:417–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Quick HH, Ladd ME, Nanz D, Mikolajczyk KP, Debatin JF (1999) Vascular stents as RF antennas for intravascular MR guidance and imaging. Magn Reson Med 42:738–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rasche V, de Boer RW, Holz D, Proksa R (1995) Continuous radial data acquisition for dynamic MRI. Magn Reson Med 34:754–761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rasche V, Holz D, Kohler J, Proksa R, Roschmann P (1997) Catheter tracking using continuous radial MRI. Magn Reson Med 37:963–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Riederer SJ, Tasciyan T, Farzaneh F, Lee JN, Wright RC, Herfkens RJ (1988) MR fluoroscopy: technical feasibility. Magn Reson Med 8:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sardanelli F, Zandrino F, Molinari G, Iozzelli A, Balbi M, Barsotti A (2002) MR evaluation of coronary stents with navigator echo and breath-hold cine gradient-echo techniques. Eur Radiol 12:193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schaeffter T, Weiss S, Eggers H, Rasche V (2001) Projection reconstruction balanced fast field echo for interactive real-time cardiac imaging. Magn Reson Med 46:1238–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schenck JF, Jolesz FA, Roemer PB et al (1995) Superconducting open-configuration MR imaging system for image-guided therapy. Radiology 195:805–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Serfaty JM, Yang X, Aksit P, Quick HH, Solaiyappan M, Atalar E (2000) Toward MRI-guided coronary catheterization: visualization of guiding catheters, guidewires, and anatomy in real time. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:590–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shankaranarayanan A, Simonetti OP, Laub G, Lewin JS, Duerk JL (2001) Segmented k-space and real-time cardiac cine MR imaging with radial trajectories. Radiology 221:827–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shetty AN, Bis KG, Kirsch M, Weintraub J, Laub G (2000) Contrast-enhanced breath-hold three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of renal arteries: optimization of technique and pitfalls. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:912–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shinnar M, Fallon JT, Wehrli S et al (1999) The diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo MRI for human atherosclerotic plaque characterization. Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 19:2756–2761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Smits HF, Bos C, van der Weide R, Bakker CJ (1999) Interventional MR: vascular applications. Eur Radiol 9:1488–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Spielman DM, Pauly JM, Meyer CH (1995) Magnetic resonance fluoroscopy using spirals with variable sampling densities. Magn Reson Med 34:388–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Spuentrup E, Bornert P, Botnar RM, Groen JP, Manning WJ, Stuber M (2002) Navigator-gated free-breathing three-dimensional Balanced FFE (True-FISP) coronary MRA. Invest Radiol 37: 637–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Spuentrup E, Botnar RM, Lanzer P (2002) Technical aspects of the coronary MR angiography. Z Kardiol 91:107–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Spuentrup E, Buecker A, Stuber M, Gunther RW (2001) MR-venography using high resolution True-FISP. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 173:686–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Spuentrup E, Kuehl HP, Wall A, Heer C, Buecker A (2001) Visualization of cardiac myxoma mobility with real-time spiral magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 104:E101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Spuentrup E, Ruebben A, Schaeffter T, Manning WJ, Gunther RW, Buecker A (2002) Magnetic resonance-guided coronary artery stent placement in a swine model. Circulation 105:874–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stuber M, Botnar RM, Danias PG et al (1999) Double oblique free-breathing high-resolution 3D coronary MRA. J Am Coll Cardiol 34:524–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Susil RC, Yeung CJ, Halperin HR, Lardo AC, Atalar E (2002) Multifunctional interventional devices for MRI: a combined electrophysiology/ MRI catheter. Magn Reson Med 47:594–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    van Dijk LC, van Holten J, van Dijk BP, Matheijssen NA, Pattynama PM (2001) A precious metal alloy for construction of MR imaging-compatible balloon-expandable vascular stents. Radiology 219:284–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vogl TJ, Balzer JO, Mack MG, Bett G, Oppelt A (2002) Hybrid MR interventional imaging system: combined MR and angiography suites with single interactive table. Feasibility study in vascular liver tumor procedures. Eur Radiol 12: 1394–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ward MR, Pasterkamp G, Yeung AC, Borst C (2000) Arterial remodeling. Mechanisms and clinical implications. Circulation 102:1186–1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Weber OM, Eggers H, Spiegel MA, Scheidegger MB, Proksa R, Boesiger P (1999) Real-time interactive magnetic resonance imaging with multiple coils for the assessment of left ventricular function. J Magn Reson Imaging 10:826–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wiesmann F, Gatehouse PD, Panting JR, Taylor AM, Firmin DN, Pennell DJ (1998) Comparison of fast spiral, echo planar, and fast low-angle shot MRI for cardiac volumetry at 5T. J Magn Reson Imaging 8:1033–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wildermuth S, Debatin JF, Leung DA et al (1997) MR imaging-guided intravascular proedures: initial demonstration in a pig model. Radiology 202:578–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wildermuth S, Dumoulin CL, Pfammatter T, Maier SE, Hofmann E, Debatin JF (1998) MR-guided percutaneous angioplasty: assessment of tracking safety, catheter handling and functionality. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 21:404–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wildermuth S, Erhart P, Leung DA, Gohde S, Schoenenberger A, Debatin JF (1998) Active instrumental guidance in interventional MR tomography: introduction to a new concept. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 169:77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wong EY, Zhang Q, Duerk JL, Lewin JS, Wendt M (2000) An optical system for wireless detuning of parallel resonant circuits. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:632–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yang X, Atalar E (2000) Intravascular MR imaging-guided balloon angioplasty with an MR imaging guide wire: feasibility study in rabbits. Radiology 217:501–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yang PC, Kerr AB, Liu AC et al (1998) New real-time interactive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging system complements echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 32:2049–2056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yeung CJ, Susil RC, Atalar E (2002) RF safety of wires in interventional MRI: using a safety index. Magn Reson Med 47:187–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elmar Spuentrup
  • Arno Buecker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations