Off-pump totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting

  • U. Kappert
  • J. Schneider
  • S. M. Tugtekin


In the thrive towards a minimization of access in minimally invasive cardiac surgery, wrist-enhanced robotic instrumentation is currently leading to a turning point in the history of minimally invasive cardiac surgery as totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting procedures become feasible [1, 4 5 6, 9, 10, 12, 17].


Beating Heart Vessel Loop Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Procedure Invasive Cardiac Surgery Single Vessel Coronary Artery Disease 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Kappert
  • J. Schneider
  • S. M. Tugtekin

There are no affiliations available

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