The shape of the aortic valve leaflet was first described by Philiston  in the 4th century BC as semilunar, and in 1513 Leonardo da Vinci  depicted in a drawing the geometry of the orifice of an opened and closed aortic valve as triangular and with three adjacent hemispherical forms, respectively (Figs. 1–3). Valsalva described the aortic sinuses in 1740 and suggested that the coronary artery filling takes place in the sinuses during diastole . Recent echocardiographic and computed tomographic descriptions of the aortic valve and root diseases [5, 6, 7] and their relationship to the coronary artery origins have documented the importance of imaging the aortic root and the impact on the technical artistry of aortic root replacement, valve-sparing surgery, and minimally invasive transcatheter aortic valve replacement (Figs. 4–7) [8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. In fact, 2.9% of adults older than 65 years have calcific aortic stenosis .
KeywordsAortic Valve Aortic Root Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic Annulus Aortic Valve Leaflet
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