Surface Characteristics and Biocompatibility of Micro Arc Oxidized (MAO) Titanium Alloy

  • Soon-Yong Kwon
  • Yong-Sik Kim
  • D.-H. Sun
  • S.-S. Kim
  • H.-W. Kim
Part of the Ceramics in Orthopaedics book series (CIO)


The aim of this research was to characterize micro arc oxidized titanium (MAO-Ti), accompanied by biocompatibility test in vivo as well as in vitro in comparison to the different types of surface modification; machined, blasted and plasma spray.

XRD and SEM investigations were performed in order to assess the structure and morphology. Biologic and morphologic responses to the osteoblast cell lines (Saos-2) were then examined, using Promega® proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, ανβ3 integrin expression and cytoskeleton staining (Rhodamine-Phallodine). The analysis of gene expression for osteocalcin and collagen I was done through RT-PCR. In addition, differential histologic evaluation and interfacial strength at the bone-implant interfaces were then evaluated in the distal femur of 4 beagle dogs.

In summary, MAO-Ti appears to exhibit more favorable biocompatibility than the compared groups in vitro and in vivo as well.


Plasma Spray Interfacial Shear Strength Biomed Mater Titanium Sample Anodic Oxide Film 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Annaz B, Hing KA, Kayser M, Buckland T and Di Silvio LJ (2004) Porosity variation in hydroxyapatite and osteoblast morphology: a scanning electron microscopy study. Microsc 215:100–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anselme K (2000) Osteoblast adhesion on biomaterials. Biomaterials 21:667–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brunette DM, Tengvall P, Textor M, Thomsen P (2001) Titanium in medicine. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Forellini JP, Fox C, Stich H (1991) Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A hisomorphometric study in miniature pigs. J Biomed Mater Res 25:889–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Callen BW, Sodhi RN, Griffiths K (1995) Examination of clinical surface preparations on titanium and Ti-6Al-4V by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. Prog Surf Sci 50:269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark EA, Brugge JS (1995) Integrins and signal transduction pathways: the road taken. Science 268:233–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Groot, K., Geesink, R.G.T., Klein, C.P.A.T., and Serekian, P (1987) Plasma sprayed coating of hydroxyapatite. J Biomed Mater Res 21:1375–1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feng B, Weng J, Yang BC, Qu SX, Zhang XD (2003) Characterization of surface oxide films on titanium and adhesion of osteoblast. Biomaterials 24:4663–4670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fu Liu, Ying song, Fuping Wang, Tadao Shimizu, Kaoru Igarashi, Liancheng Zhao (2005) Formation characterization of hydroxyapatite on titanium by microarc oxidation and hydrothermal treatment. J biosci bioeng 100:100–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Groessner-Schreiber B, Tuan RS (1992) Enhanced extracellular matrix production and mineralization by osteoblast cultured on titanium surfaces in vitro. J Cell Sci 101:209–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hacking SA, Bobyn JD, Tanzer M and Krygier JJ (1999) The Osseous response to corundum blasted implant surfaces in a canine hip model. Clin Orthop 364:240–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hazan R, Brener R, Oron U (1993) Bone growth to metal implants in regulated by their, surface chemical properties. Biomaterials 14:570–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hure G, Donath K, Lesounrd M, Chappard D, Basle MF (1996) Dose titanium surface treatment influence the bone-implant interface? SEM and histomorphometry in a 6-sheep study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 11:506–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishizawa H, Ogino M (1995) Formation and characterization of titanium anodic oxide film containing Ca and P. J Biomed Mater Res 29:65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Johansson, C, Albrektsson, T (1987) Integration of screw implants in the rabbit: A 1-year follow-up of removal torque of titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofacial Implants 2:69–75.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee IS, Whang CN, Kim HE, Park JC, Song JH and Kim SR (2002) Various Ca/P ratios of thin calcium phosphate films. Materials Science and Engineering 22:15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee TM, Tsai RS, Chang E, Yang CY and Yang MR (2002) The cell attachment and morphology of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblasts on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and plasmasprayed HA coating: Effect of surface roughness and serum contents. J Mater Sci Mater Med 13:341–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li LH, Kong YM, Kim HW, Kim YW, Kim HE, Heo SJ, Koak JY (2004) Improved biological performance of Ti implants due to surface modification by microarc oxidation. Biomaterials 25:2867–2875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nie X, Leyland A and Matthews A (2000) Deposition of layered bioceramic hydroxyapatite/TiO2 coatings on titanium alloys using a hybrid technique of micro-arc oxidation and electrophoresis. Surface and Coatings Technology 125:407–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ong JL, Prince CW, Raikar GN, Lucas LC (1996) Effect of surface topography of titanium on surface chemistry and cellular response. Implant Dent 5:83–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raymond PR, Gaston RD and Thomas MG (1996) Uncemented total hip arthroplasty using the CLS stem: A titanium alloy implant with a corundum blast finish: Results at a mean 6 years in a prospective study. J Arthroplasty 11:286–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sitting C, Textor M, Spencer ND, Wieland M, Valloton PH (1999) Surface characterization of implant material CP Ti Ti-6Al-4V with different pretreatments. J Mater Sci Mater Med 10:35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Son WW, Zhu X, Shin HI, Ong JL, Kim KH (2003) In vivo histological response to anodized and anodized/hydrothermally treated titanium implants. J Biomed Mater Res B 66:520–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sul YT (2003) The significance of the surface properties of oxidized titanium to the bone response: special emphasis on potential biochemical bonding of oxidized titanium implant. Biomaterials 24:3893–3907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Van NR (1987) Titanium: the implant material of today. J Mater Res 22:3801–3811 Zhu X. Kim KH, Jeong Y (2001) Anodic oxide films containing Ca and P of titanium. Biomaterials 22:2199-2206.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhu X, Chen J, Scheideler L, Altebaeumer T, Geis-Gerstorfer J and Kern D (2004) Cellular reactions of osteoblasts to micronand submicron-scale porous structures of titanium surfaces. Cells Tissues Organs 178:13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soon-Yong Kwon
    • 1
  • Yong-Sik Kim
    • 1
  • D.-H. Sun
  • S.-S. Kim
  • H.-W. Kim
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic Surgery St. Mary’s HospitalThe Catholic University of KoreaSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations