Advertisement

Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound for Diagnosis and Staging of Esophageal Cancer

  • Annette Fritscher-Ravens
  • Mark X. Pelling

Abstract

Despite radical and aggressive combination chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor.

Keywords

Esophageal Cancer Esophageal Carcinoma Endoscopic Ultrasound Early Esophageal Cancer Celiac Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Moss A, Schnyder P, Thoeni RF et al (1981) Esophageal carcinoma: pretherapy staging by computed tomography. AJR 136:1051–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tio TL, Cohen P, Coene PP et al (1989) Endosonography and computed tomography of esophageal carcinoma: preoperative classification compared to the new 1987 TNM staging system. Gastroenterology 96: 1478–1486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Halvorsen RA, Magruder-Habib K, Foster WL et al (1986) Esophageal cancer staging by CT: Long term follow up study. Radiology 161:17–151Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hutter VP (1987) At last — worldwide agreement on the staging of cancer. Arch Surg 122:1235–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hermanek P, Sobin LH (eds) (1987) TNM classification of malignant tumors, 4th ed. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kimmey MB, Martin RW, Haggit RC et al (1989) Histologic correlations of gastrointestinal ultrasound images. Gastroenterology 96:433–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nattermann CH, Dancygier H (1993) Endoscopic ultrasound in the preoperative TN-staging of esophageal carcinoma. A comparative study between endosonography and computed tomography. Ultraschall in Med 14:100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grimm H, Binmöller KF, Hamper K et al (1993) Endosonography for preoperative locoregional staging of esophageal and gastric cancer. Endoscopy 25:224–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tio TL, Coene PP, den Hartog Jager et al (1990) Preoperative TNM classification of esophageal carcinoma by endosonography. Hepatogastroenterology 37:376–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vilmann P (1996) Endoscopic ultrasonographyguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes. Gastrointest Endosc 43:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tio T, Tytgat GNJ (1986) Endoscopic ultrasonography in analyzing peri-intestinal lymph node abnormality. Preliminary results of studies in vitro and in vivo. Scand J Gastroenterol 21(suppl 123): 158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Catalano MF, Sivak MV, Rice TW et al (1994) Endosonographic features predictive of lymph node metastasis. Gastrointest Endosc 40:442–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhutani MS, Hawes RH, Hoffmann BJ (1997) A comparison of the accuracy of echo features during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration for diagnosis of malignant lymph node invasion. Gastrointest Endosc 45:474–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grimm H, Binmöller KF, Soehendra N (1992) Ultrasonic esophagoprobe (prototype I). Gastrointest Endosc 38:490–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Binmöller KF, Seifert H, Seitz U et al (1995) Ultrasonic esophagoprobe for TNM staging of highly stenosing esophageal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 41:547–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Takemoto T, Yanai H, Hada M (1992) Application of ultrasonic probes prior to endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer. Endosc 24(suppl 1):329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Consensus conference (1993) Clinical applications of endoscopic ultrasonography in gastroenterology-State of the art 1993. Endosc 25:358–366Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vilmann P, Hancke S (1996) A new biopsy handle instrument for endoscopic ultrasound guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy. Gastrointest Endosc 43: 238–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fritscher-Ravens A, Brand B, Bohnacker S, Sri Ram PVJ, Soehendra N (2000) Techniques in EUS-guided FNA of lymph nodes. Techniques in Endoscopy 2:142–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rösch T (1995) Endosonographic staging of esophageal cancer. A review of literature results. Gastrointest Endosc Clin North Am 5:537–547Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chak A, Canto M, Gerdes H et al (1995) Prognosis of esophageal cancers preoperatively staged to be locally invasive (T4) by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Gastrointest Endosc 42:501–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gertsch P, Vauthey JN, Lustenberger AA et al (1993) Long-term results of transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. Cancer 72:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Müller JM, Erasmi H, Stelner M (1990) Surgical therapy of esophageal carcinoma. Br J Surg 77: 845–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rösch T, Classen M (1992) Gastroenterologic endosonography. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dittler HJ, Siewert RJ (1993) Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in esophageal carcinoma. Endosc 25:156–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hordijk ML, Zander H, Van Blankenstein M et al (1993) Influence of tumor stenosis on the accuracy of endosonography in preoperative T-staging of esophageal cancer. Endosc 25:171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Souquet JC, Napoleon B, Pujol B et al (1992) Endosonography guided treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Endosc 24(suppl 1):324–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weaver SR, Blackshaw GR, Lewis WG, Edwards P, Roberts SA, Thomas GV, Allison MC (2004) Comparison of special interest computed tomography, endosonography and histopathological stage of oesophageal cancer. Clin Radiol 59:499–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vazquez-Sequeiros E, Wiersema MJ, Clain JE, Norton ID, Levy MJ, Romero Y, Salomao D, Dierkhising R, Zinsmeister AR (2003) Impact of lymph node staging on therapy of esophageal carcinoma Gastroenterology 125:1626–1635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rasanen JV, Sihvo EI, Knuuti MJ, Minn HR, Luostarinen ME, Laippala P, Viljanen T, Salo JA (2003) Prospective analysis of accuracy of positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and endoscopic ultrasonography in staging of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. Ann Surg Oncol 10:954–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Flamen P, Lerut A, Van Cutsem E, De Wever W, Peeters M, Stroobants S, Dupont P, Bormans G, Hiele M, De Leyn P, Van Raemdonck D, Coosemans W, Ectors N, Haustermans K, Mortelmans L (2000) Utility of positron emission tomography for the staging of patients with potentially operable esophageal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 18:3199–3201Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Heeren PA, Jager PL, Bongaerts F, van Dullemen H, Sluiter W, Plukker JT (2004) Detection of distant metastases in esophageal cancer with (18)FFDG PET. J Nucl Med 45:980–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wallace MB, Nietert PJ, Earle C, Krasna MJ, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ, Reed CE (2002) An analysis of multiple staging management strategies for carcinoma of the esophagus: computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, positron emission tomography, and thoracoscopy/laparoscopy. Ann Thorac Surg 74:1026–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Catalano MF, Van Dam J, Sivak MV (1995) Malignant esophageal strictures. Staging accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography. Gastrointest Endosc 41:535–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Van Dam J, Rice TW, Catalano MF et al (1993) High grade malignant stricture is predictive of esophageal tumor stage. Risks of endosonographic evaluation. Cancer 71:2910–2917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kallimanis GE, Gupta PK, Al-Kawas FH et al (1996) Endoscopic ultrasound for staging esophageal cancer, with or without dilatation, is clinically important and safe. Gastrointest Endosc 41:540–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mallery S, Van Dam J (1999) Increased rate of complete EUS staging of patients with esophageal cancer using the nonoptical, wire-guided echoendoscope. Gastrointest Endosc 50:53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Menzel J, Höpffner N, Nottberg H et al (1999) Preoperative staging of esophageal carcinoma: Miniprobe sonography versus conventional endoscopic ultrasound in a prospective histopathologically verified study. Endoscopy 31:291–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hünerbein M, Ghadimi BM, Hänsch W et al (1998) Transendoscopic ultrasound of esophageal and gastric cancer using miniaturized ultrasound catheter probes. Gastrointest Endosc 48:371–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chak A, Canto M, Stevens PD et al (1997) Clinical applications of a new through the scope ultrasound probe. Prospective comparison with an ultrasound endoscope. Gastrointest Endosc 45:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Isenberg G, Chak A, Canto MI et al (1998) Endoscopic ultrasound in restaging of esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Gastrointest Endosc 48:158–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hordijk ML, Kok TC, Wilson JH et al (1993) Assessment of response of esophageal carcinoma to induction chemotherapy. Endosc 25:592–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dittler HJ, Fink U, Siewert GR (1994) Response to chemotherapy in esophageal cancer. Endoscopy 26:769–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zuccaro G, Rice TW, Goldblum J et al (1999) Endoscopic ultrasound cannot determine suitability for esophagectomy after aggressive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol 94:906–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Laterza E, Manzoni G, Guglielmi A et al (1999) Endoscopic ultrasonography in the staging of esophageal carcinoma after preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Ann Thorac Surg 67:1466–1469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kalha I, Kaw M, Fukami N, Patel M, Singh S, Gagneja H, Cohen D, Morris J (2004) The accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound for restaging esophageal carcinoma after chemoradiation therapy. Cancer 101:940–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Beseth BD, Bedford R, Isacoff WH, Holmes EC, Cameron RB (2000) Endoscopic ultrasound does not accurately assess pathologic stage of esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Am Surg 66:827–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tio LT, Blank LEC, Wijers OB et al (1994) Staging and prognosis using endosonography in patients with inoperable esophageal carcinoma treated with combined intraluminal and external irradiation. Gastrointest Endosc 40:304–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lightdale CJ, Botet JF, Kelsen DP et al (1989) Diagnosis of recurrent upper gastrointestinal cancer at the surgical anastomosis by endoscopic ultrasound. Gastrointest Endosc 35:407–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Catalano MF, Sivak MV, Rice TW et al (1995) Postoperative screening for anastomotic recurrence of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic endosonography. Gastrointest Endosc 42:540–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fockens P, Manshanden CG, van Landschot JB et al (1997) Prospective study on the value of endosonographic follow-up after surgery for esophageal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 46:487–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Soehendra N, Binmöller KF, Bohnacker S et al (1997) Endoscopic snare mucosectomy in the esophagus without any additional equipment: A simple technique for resection of flat early cancer. Endosc 29:380–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goseki N, Koike M, Yoshida M (1992) Histopathologic characteristics of early stage esophageal carcinoma. A comparative study with gastric carcinoma. Cancer 69:1088–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bogomoletz WV, Molas G, Gayet B et al (1989) Superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Am J Pathol 13:535–546Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tio TL (1998) Diagnosis and staging of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopy 30(suppl 1):A33–A40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hasegawa N, Niwa Y, Arisawa T et al (1996) Preoperative staging of superficial esophageal carcinoma: comparison of an ultrasound probe and standard endoscopic ultrasonography. Gastrointest Endosc 44:388–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yanai H, Yoshida T, Harada T et al (1996) Endoscopic ultrasonography of superficial esophageal cancers using a thin ultrasound probe system equipped with switchable radial and linear scanning modes. Gastrointest Endosc 44:578–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yasuda K, Kamaguchi M, Morikawa J, Honda M, Nakajima M (2005) Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 15:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Natsugoe S, Yoshinaka H, Morinaga T et al (1996) Ultrasonographic detection of lymph node metastases in superficial carcinoma of the esophagus. Endoscopy 28:674–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    McLoud TC, Bourgouin PM, Greenberg RW (1992) Bronchogenic carcinoma: Analysis of staging in the mediastinum with CT by correlative lymph-node mapping and sampling. Radiology 182:319–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 62.
    Izbicki JR, Thetter O, Karg et al (1992) Accuracy of computed tomographic scan and surgical assessment for staging of bronchial carcinoma. J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 104:413–420Google Scholar
  62. 63.
    Kondo D, Imaizumi M, Abe T et al (1990) Endoscopic ultrasound examination for mediastinal lymph node metastases of lung cancer. Chest 98: 586–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 64.
    Ikenberry S, Bilderback S, Hawes R (1997) Endoscopic ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration biopsy guided by endoscopic ultrasonography, and computed tomography in the preoperative staging of non-small-cell lung cancer: A comparison study. Ann Int Med 127:604–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 65.
    Salazar AM, Westcott JL (1993) The role of transthoracic needle biopsy for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Clin Chest Med 14:99–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 66.
    Belfiore G, Camera L, Vetrani A, Fraioli G, Salvatore M (1997) Middle mediastinum lesions: Preliminary experience with CT guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy with a suprasternal approach. Radiology 202:870–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 67.
    Schneider CP, Pröschild A, Mäder I et al (1999) CT-guided transthoracic biopsy of intrapulmonary and mediastinal lesions. A retrospective study in 300 patients. Pneumologie 53:71–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 68.
    Ciccia D (1999) Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration in esophageal cancer. Techniques in Gastrointest Endosc 1:60–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 69.
    Fritscher-Ravens A, SriRam PVJ, Schröder S, Topalidis T, Bohnacker S, Soehendra N (2000) Stromal tumor as a pitfall in endosonography-guided fineneedle aspiration cytology. Gastrointest Endosc 51: 746–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 70.
    Silvestri GA, Hoffmann BJ, Bhutani MS et al (1996) Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 61:1441–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 71.
    Gress F, Savides T, Sandler A et al (1997) Endoscopic ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration biopsy guided by endoscopic ultrasonography, and computed tomography in the preoperative staging of non small-cell lung cancer: A comparison study. Ann Int Med 127:604–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 72.
    Fritscher-Ravens A, SriRam PVJ, Bobrowski B, Pforte A, Topalidis T, Thonke F, Jäckle S, Soehendra N (2000) Mediastinal lymphadenopathy in patients with and without previous malignancy — EUS-FNA based cytodiagnosis in 153 patients. Am J Gastroenterol 95:2278–2284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 73.
    Wiersema MJ, Vilmann P, Giovannini M et al (1997) Endosonography guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy: diagnostic accuracy and complication assessment. Gastroenterology 112:1087–1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 74.
    Williams DB, Sahai AV, Aabakken L et al (1999) Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a large single center experience. GUT 44:720–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 75.
    Giovannini M, Monges G, Seitz JF et al (1999) Distant lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer. Impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy. Endosc 31:536–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 76.
    Reed CE, Mishra G, Sahai A (1999) Esophageal cancer staging: Improved accuracy by endoscopic ultrasound of celiac lymph nodes. Ann Thorac Surg 67:319–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 77.
    Chang KJ, Soetikno RM, Bastas D, Tu C, Nguyen PT (2003) Impact of endoscopic ultrasound combined with fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the management of esophageal cancer. Endosc 35:962–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 78.
    Eloubeidi MA, Wallace MB, Reed CE, Hadzijahic N, Lewin DN, Van Velse A, Leveen MB, Etemad B, Matsuda K, Patel RS, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ (2001) The utility of EUS and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration in detecting celiac lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer: a single-center experience. Gastrointest Endosc 54(6): 714–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 79.
    Parmar KS, Zwischenberger JB, Reeves AL, Waxman I (2002) Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasoundguided fine needle aspiration of celiac axis lymph nodes (M1a disease) in esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 73(3):916–920, discussion 920–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 80.
    Romagnuolo J, Scott J, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ, Reed CE, Aithal GP, Breslin NP, Chen RY, Gumustop B, Hennessey W, Van Velse A, Wallace MB (2002) Helical CT versus EUS with fine needle aspiration for celiac nodal assessment in patients with esophageal cancer. Gastrointest Endosc 55: 648–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 81.
    Harewood GC, Wiersema MJ (2002) A cost analysis of endoscopic ultrasound in the evaluation of esophageal. Am J Gastroenterol 97(2):452–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 82.
    Greene FL, Page DL, Fleming ID et al (eds) (2002) TNM classification and stage grouping of esophageal carcinoma. American joint committee on cancer. Cancer staging manual, 6th edn. Springer, New York, pp 91–98Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette Fritscher-Ravens
    • 1
  • Mark X. Pelling
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Mary’s HospitalImperial CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations