Surgical Treatment of Esophageal Fistula and Perforation
Injuries of the esophagus may be caused by mechanical, chemical, and actinic damages. Usually, they are the consequence of a blunt trauma. The exceptions are perforations of the esophagus. Injuries of the esophagus by ingestion of a foreign body arise in physiologic narrow passages (pharyngoesophageal passage, in the middle third of the aortic arch, cardioesophageal passage). A decubitus of the esophagus can be seen if a foreign body remains longer in the esophagus. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy measures may also lead to injuries of the esophagus. Esophagoscopy and bougienage of a cicatricial stricture, especially in an early phase after a corrosive injury, are the most frequent reasons for an iatrogenic perforation of the esophagus. Dilatation of the cardia with the Stark’s instrument can cause a laceration and perforation. Complications for pneumatic or hydrostatic dilatation are rarely seen.
KeywordsForeign Body Blunt Trauma Azygos Vein Direct Suture Pleural Empyema
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