There is only one great artery (truncus arteriosus) originating from the base of the heart providing both pulmonary and systemic circulation. The truncal valve is obviously larger than a normal semilunar valve, with a variable number of leaflets from only one up to five and even six leaflets (extremely rare); most frequently the truncal valve has three (42-61% of cases) or four leaflets (24-31% of cases); a truncal valve with two leaflets is rare (5% of cases). The valve is generally located above the ventricular septal defect, almost always present, and the leaflets can be dysplastic and/or thickened with resulting stenosis, regurgitation (in at least 20% of cases), or both. The ventricular septal defect results from the absence of the infundibular septum, and is generally high, anterior and unrestrictive. Absence of the ventricular septal defect is anecdotal.
KeywordsAortic Arch Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Outflow Tract Pulmonary Atresia Truncus Arteriosus
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