Advertisement

Kardiomyopathien

Chapter
  • 1.9k Downloads

Auszug

Nach Definition der WHO und der International Society and Federation of Cardiology von 1995 umfassen die Kardiomyopathien alle Erkrankungen des Herzmuskels, die mit einer kardialen Funktionsstörung assoziiert sind [41]. Die beiden mit Abstand häufigsten Vertreter primärer Kardiomyopathien sind die hypertrophe Kardiomyopathie (HCM), die eine Prävalenz von fast 1: 500 aufweist und die dilatative Kardiomyopathie (DCM, Prävalenz 36: 100 000). Die genaue Häufigkeit der weitaus selteneren arrhythmogenen rechtsventrikulären Kardiomyopathie (ARVC) ist nicht bekannt, während die restriktiven Kardiomyopathien nahezu eine Rarität darstellen [9, 28, 37].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Basso C, Thiene G, Corrado D, Buja G, Melacini P, Nava A (2000) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sudden death in the young: pathologic evidence of myocardial ischemia. Hum Pathol 31:988–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Briguori C, Betocchi S, Romano M, Manganelli F, Angela-Losi M, Ciampi Q, Gottilla R, Lombardi R, Condorelli M, Chiariello M (1999) Exercise capacity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy depends on left ventricular diastolic function. Am J Cardiol 84:309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burke AP, Farb A, Tashko G, Virmani R (1998) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and fatty replacement. Circulation 97:1571–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cannon RO, McIntosh CL, Schenke WH, Maron BJ, Bonow RO, Epstein SE (1989) Effect of surgical reduction of left ventricular outflow obstruction on hemodynamics, coronary flow, and myocardial metabolism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 79:766–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cardim N, Oliveira AG, PhD, Longo S, Ferreira T, Pereira A, Reis RP, Correia JM (2003) Doppler tissue imaging: Regional myocardial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in athlete’s heart. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 16:223–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Charron P, Dubourg O, Desnos M, Isnard R, Hagege A, Millaire A, Carrier L, Bonne G, Tesson F, Richard P, Bouhour JB, Schwartz K, Komajda M (1997) Diagnostic value of electrocardiography and echocardiography for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a genotyped adult population. Circulation 96:214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corrado D, Basso C, Schiavon M, Thiene G (1998) Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in young athletes. N Engl J Med 339:364–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corrado D, Basso C, Thiene G, McKenna WJ, Davies MJ, Fontaliran F, Nava A, Silvestri F, Blomstrom-Lundquist C, Wlodarska EK, Fontaine G, Camerini F (1997) Spectrum of clinicopathologic manifestations of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathia/dysplasia: a multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:1512–1520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Corrado D, Fontaine G, Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Nava A, Thiene G, Wichter T (2000) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathia/dysplasia — Need for international registry. Circulation 101:e101–e106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dec WG, Fuster V (1994) Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 331: 1564–1575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deng MC, Röder N, Plenz G, Erren M, Brisse B, Soeparwata R, Scheld HH (1997) Proinflammatorische Zytokine und kardiale Pumpfunktion. Z Kardiol 86:788–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dickhuth H-H, Hipp A, Nieß A, Röcker K, Mayer F, Horstmann T (2001) Differenzialdiagnostik der physiologischen Herzhypertrophie (Sportherz). Dtsch Z Sportmed 52:205–210Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Elliott PM (2001) The role of pharmacologic treatment to prevent sudden death in the implantable cardioverter defibrillator era. Curr Cardiol Rep 3:167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elliott PM, Poloniecki J, Dickie S, Sharma S, Monserrat L, Varnava A, Mahon NG, McKenna WJ (2000) Sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Identification of high risk patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:2212–2218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Elliott PM, Gimeo Blanes JR, Mahon NG, Poloniecki J, McKenna WJ (2001) Relation between severity of left-ventricular hyperthrophy and prognosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Lancet 357:420–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Erbs S, Linke A, Gielen S, Fiehn E, Walther C, Yu J, Adams V, Schuler G, Hambrecht R (2003) Exercise training in patients with severe chronic heart failure: Impact on left ventricular performance and cardiac size. A retrospective analysis of the Leipzig Heart Failure Training Trial. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 10:336–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Franciosa JA, Park M, Levine TB (1981) Lack of correlation between exercise capacity and indexes of resting left ventricular performance in heart failure. Am J Cardiol 47:33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jansson K, Dahlstrom U, Karlsson E, Nylander E, Walfridsson H, Sonnhag C (1990) The value of exercise test, Holter monitoring, and programmed electrical stimulation in detection of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 13:1261–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kadish A, Dyer A, Daubert JP, Quigg R, Estes NA, Anderson KP, Calkins H, Hoch D, Goldberger J, Shalaby A, Sanders WE, Schächter A, Levine JH (2004) Prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 350:2151–2158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klues HG, Schiffers A, Maron BJ (1995) Phenotypic spectrum and patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Morphologic observations and significance as assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography in 600 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 26:1699–1708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Manyari DE, Paulsen W, Boughner DR, Purves P, Kostuk WJ (1983) Resting and exercise left ventricular function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J 105:980–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marcus FI, Fontaine G (1995) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: A review. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 18:1298–1314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marcus FI, Fontaine G, Guiraudon G, Frank R, Laurenceau JL, Malergue C, Grosgogeat Y (1982) Right ventricular dysplasia: A report of 24 adult cases. Circulation 65:384–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maron BJ (2001) The electrocardiogram as a diagnostic tool for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: revisited. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 6:277–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maron BJ (2002) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy — A systematic review. JAMA 13:1308–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maron BJ, Gottdiener JS, Epstein SE (1981) Patterns and significance of the distribution of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A wideangle, two-dimensional echocardiographic study of 125 patients. Am J Cardiol 48:418–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maron BJ, Ackermann MJ, Nishimura RA, Pyeritz RE, Towbin JA, Udelson JE (2005) Task force 4: HCM and other cardiomyopathies, mitral valve prolapse and marfan syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:1340–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maron BJ, Gardin JM, Flack JM, Gidding SS, Kurosaki TT, Bild DE (1995) Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a general population of young adults. Echocardiographic analysis of 4111 subjects in the CARDIA Study. Circulation 92:785–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Danielson GK, Kappenberger LJ, Kuhn HJ, Seidman CE, Shah PM, Spencer WH 3rd, Spirito P, Ten Cate FJ, Wigle ED (2003) American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology Clinical Expert Consensus Document on Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents and the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 24:1965–1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maron BJ, Shirani J, Poliac LC, Mathenge R, Roberts WC, Mueller FO (1998) Sudden death in young competitive athletes. Clinical, demographic, and pathological profiles. JAMA 276:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maron BJ, Niimura H, Casey SA, Soper MK, Wright GB, Seidman JG, Seidman CE (2001) Development of left ventricular hypertrophy in adults in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene mutations. J Am Coll Cardiol 38:315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maron BJ, Seidman JG, Seidman CE (2004) Proposal for contemporary screening strategies in families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 44: 2125–2132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McKenna WJ, Thiene G, Nava A, Fontaliran F, Blomstrom-Lundquist C, Fontaine G, Camerini F (1994) Diagnosis of right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J 71:215–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nava A, Bauce B, Basso C, Muriago M, Rampazzo A, Villanova C, Daliento L, Buja G, Corrado D, Danieli GA, Thiene G (2000) Clinical profile and long-term followup of 37 families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:2226–2233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nelson GS, Curry CW, Wyman BT, Kramer A, Declerck J, Talbot M, Douglas MR, Berger RD, McVeigh ER, Kass DA (2000) Predictors of systolic augmentation from left ventricular preexcitation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and intraventricular conduction delay. Circulation 101:2703–2709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Norman MW, McKenna WJ (1999) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: Perspectives on disease. Z Kardiol 88:550–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Olbrich H-G (2001) Epidemiologie — Ätiologie der dilatativen Kardiomyopathie. Z Kardiol 90Suppl I: I/2–I/7Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Olivotto I, Cecchi F, Casey SA, Dolara A, Traverse JH, Maron BJ (2001) Impact of atrial fibrillation on the clinical course of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 104:2517–2524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38a.
    Pelliccia A, Fagard R, Bjornstad HH et al (2005) Recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease: a consensus document from the Study Group of Sports Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 26:1422–1445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Spataro A, Proschan MA, Spirito P (1991) The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes. N Engl J Med 324:295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Culasso F, Spataro A, Caselli G (1996) Athlete’s heart in women. Echocardiographic characterization of highly trained elite female athletes. JAMA 276:211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Peters S, Peters H, Thierfelder L (1999) Risk stratification of sudden cardiac death and malignant ventricular arrhythmias in right ventricular dysplasia-cardiomyopathy. Int J Cardiol 71:243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Petersen SE, Selvanayagam JB, Francis JM, Myerson SG, Wiesmann F, Robson MD, Ostman-Smith I, Casadei B, Watkins H, Neubauer S (2005) Differentiation of athlete’s heart from pathological forms of cardiac hypertrophy by means of geometric indices derived from cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 7:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Pires LA, Abraham WT, Young JB, Johnson KM (2006) Clinical predictors and timing of New York Heart Association class improvement with cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with advanced chronic heart failure: Results from the Multicenter InSync Randomized Clinical Evaluation (MIRACLE) and Multicenter InSync ICD Randomized Clinical Evaluation (MIRACLE-ICD) trials. Am Heart J 151:837–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Pollick C (1982) Muscular subaortic stenosis: hemodynamic and clinic improvement after disopyramide. N Engl J Med 307:997–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Rector TS, Olivari MT, Levine TB, Francis GS, Cohn JN (1987) Predicting survival for an individual with congestive heart failure using the plasma norepinephrine concentration. Am Heart J 114:148–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Rees K, Taylor RS, Singh S, Coats AJ, Ebrahim S (2004) Exercise based rehabilitation for heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003331Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Ricci C, Longo R, Pagnan L, Dalla Palma L, Pinamonti B, Camerini F, Bussani R, Silvestri F (1992) Magnetic resonance imaging in right ventricular dysplasia. Am J Cardiol 70:1589–1595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Richardson P, McKenna W, Bristow M, Maisch B, Mautner B, O’Connell J, Olsen E, Thiene G, Goodwin J, Gyarfas I, Martin I, Nordet P (1996) Report of the 1995 World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology Task Force on the definition and classification of cardiomyopathies. Circulation 93:841–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Rost R, Hollmann W (1983) Athlete’s Heart — a review of its historical assessment and new aspects. Int J Sports Med 4:147–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Sharma S, Firozzi S, McKenna WJ (2001) Value of exercise testing in assessing clinical state and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiol Rev 9:70–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Sharma S, Maron BJ, Whyte G, Firozzi S, Elliott PM, McKenna WJ (2002) Physiologic limits of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite junior athletes: Relevance to differential diagnosis of athlete’s heart and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 40:1431–1436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Spirito P, Rapezzi C, Bellone P, Betocchi S, Autore C, Conte MR, Bezante GP, Bruzzi P (1999) Infective endocarditis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevalence, incidence, and indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. Circulation 99:2132–2137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Spirito P, Seidman CE, McKenna W, Maron BJ (1997) The management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 336:775–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    St. John-Sutton MG, Lie JT, Anderson KR, O’Brien PC, Frye RL (1980) Histopathological specificity of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Myocardial fibre disarray and myocardial fibrosis. Br Heart J 44:433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Sugrue DD, Rodeheffer RJ, Codd MB, Ballard DJ, Fuster V, Gersh BJ (1992) The clinical course of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: A population-based study. Ann Intern Med 117:117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Takagi E, Yamakado T, Nakano T (1999) Prognosis of completely asymptomatic adult patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 33:206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Takeichi Y, Yokota M, Iwase M, Izawa H, Nishizawa T, Ishiki R, Somura F, Nagata K, Isobe S, Noda A (2001) Biphasic changes in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure during dynamic exercise in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 38:335–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Thomson HL, Morris-Thurgood J, Atherton J, Frenneaux M (1998) Reduced cardiopulmonary baroreflex sensitivity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 31:1377–1382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Turrini P, Corrado D, Basso C, Nava A, Bauce B, Thiene G (2001) Dispersion of ventricular depolarization-repolarization — A noninvasive marker for risk stratification in arrhythmogenic right ventricualar cardiomyopathy. Circulation 103: 3075–3080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Urhausen A, Kindermann W (1992) Echocardiographic findings in strength-and endurance-trained athletes. Sports Med 13:270–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Urhausen A, Monz T, Kindermann W (1997) Echocardiographic criteria of physiological hypertrophy in combined strength-and endurance-trained athletes. Int J Card Imaging 13:43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Van Camp SP, Bloor CM, Mueller FO, Cantu RC, Olson HG (1995) Nontraumatic sports death in high school and college athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:641–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Van Tol BAF, Huijsmans RJ, Kroon DW, Schothorst M, Kwakkel G (2006) Effects of exercise training on cardiac performance, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure: A meta-analysis. Eur J Heart Fail 8:841–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Varnava AM, Elliott PM, Mahon N, Davies MJ, McKenna WJ (2001) Relation between myocyte disarray and outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 88:275–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Watkins H, McKenna WJ, Thierfelder L, Suk HJ, Anan R, O’Donoghue A, Spirito P, Matsumori A, Moravec CS, Seidman JG, Seidman CE (1995) Mutations in the genes for cardiac troponin T and alpha-tropomyosin in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 332:1058–1064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Wichter T, Borggrefe M, Haverkamp W, Chen X, Breithart G (1992) Efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular disease: results in patients with inducible and noninducible ventricular tachycardia. Circulation 86:29–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Wichter T, Hindricks G, Lerch H, Bartenstein P, Borggrefe M, Schober O, Breithart G (1994) Regional myocardial sympathetic dysinnervation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circulation 89:667–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Yoshida N, Ikeda H, Wada T, Matsumoto A, Maki S, Muro S, Shibata A, Imaizumi T (1998) Exercise-induced abnormal blood pressure responses are related to subendocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 32: 1938–1942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag Darmstadt 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Abteilung Sportmedizin Medizinische Klinik und PoliklinikUniversitätsklinikum TübingenTübingen

Personalised recommendations