Summary and Conclusions

  • Snorri Thomas Snorrason
Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)


Preferential trade areas (PTAs) are a prominent feature of the contemporary multilateral trading system with almost 400 PTAs having been implemented as of 2010. The depth of integration of these PTAs varies greatly with some 90 % involving free trade agreements (FTAs) and partial scope agreements while customs unions account for just 10 %.


Size Classification Trade Cost Economic Integration Trade Flow Small Country 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Snorri Thomas Snorrason
    • 1
  1. 1.Management School Department of EconomicsLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

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