Empowering People and Enterprises with Strong Cultural and Territorial Identity: A Case Study of Setomaa, Estonia
As put by Dahrendorf (1959): to be successful means to be liked, and to be liked means, in many ways, to be alike. This chapter describes how to use cultural identity as a tool of economic development through the empowerment of local enterprises and people “as reported by Friedmann (Empowerment: The Politics of alternative development. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992)”. Cultural particularities might once have been considered a disadvantage in the modernist standardized world; but cultural assets are now increasingly being viewed as quite the contrary –a source for new regional economies, boosted by the current media-driven world to present difference and alternatives. This case study of Setomaa shows that cultural uniqueness can now be envisioned as a ‘regional advantage’. This innovative approach means that a location ‘on the geographic periphery’ is no more a sign of hopelessness but – in the case of some traditional well preserved amenities – instead is a resource for local enterprises. This is also a challenge to the conventional approach which states that population growth is a lead indicator for regional prosperity: Setomaa is expected to contract in terms of population in the future, however, continued economic development is still possible for the region, due to the focus on leveraging its ‘wealth’ of cultural identity.
KeywordsCreative Class Regional Economic Growth Rural Municipality Governmental Programme Economic Development Policy
This chapter was co-funded by the Target Funding Project No. SF0180052s07 “Factors influencing spatial mobility of population and the impact on the regional development” of the Ministry of Education and Science of Estonia. Also, empirical research was financed by Setomaa development programme and co-financed by the Union of Setomaa Municipalities. Authors would like to thank all interviewed persons for their time, municipal authorities and particularly Mr. Aare Hõrn and Mr. Margus Timmo, key persons of Setomaa Cultural and Development Programmes, for their assistance and very positive attitude.
- Beus, C. E. (2008). Agritourism: Cultivating tourists on the farm. Washington State University extension. http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb2020/eb2020.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov 2011.
- Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Cooke, P. (1997). Fast-growth industries in urban economies: West European and Baltic Cities Compared. Cardiff: Centre for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
- Damulienė, A. (2009). SAPARD support efficiency to rural tourism business. http://adamule.home.mruni.eu/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/sapard-support-efficiency-to-rural-tourism-business.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov 2011.
- Eesti maaturism (2010). UURING TURISMIETTEVÕTJAD MAAPIIRKONNAS 2010. http://www.maaturism.ee/index.php?id=2010. Accessed 24 Nov 2011.
- Eller, K. (1999). Võro-Seto language. Võro: Võro Instituut.Google Scholar
- Erelt, T., Erelt, M., & Ross, K. (2007). Eesti keele käsiraamat. Eesti keele sihtasutus: Tallinn.Google Scholar
- Fainstein, S., & Gladstone, D. (1999). Evaluating urban tourism. In D. Judd & S. Fainstein (Eds.), The tourist city (pp. 21–34). New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Perseus Book Group.Google Scholar
- Hetherington, K. (1998). Expressions of identity. Space, performance, politics. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ilbery, B. W., Healey, M., & Higginbottom, J. (1997). On and off-farm diversification by farm households in England. In B. W. Ilbery, Q. Chiotti, & T. Rickard (Eds.), Agricultural restructuring and sustainability. Wallingford: CAB.Google Scholar
- Kasak, E. (1998) Võru murre ja võro keel. – Õdagumeresoomõ väikuq keeleq. /Võro dialect and Võro language. – Baltic-Finnish Small Languages/ Jüvä Sullõv & Karl Pajusalu (Eds.). Võro Instituudi toimõtiseq 4. Võro, 13–19.Google Scholar
- Kockel, U. (1993). The gentle subversion. Informal economy and regional development in the West of Ireland. Bremen: European Society for Irish Studies.Google Scholar
- Kultuuriministeerium (2011). Setumaa kultuuriprogramm 2010–2013. http://www.kul.ee/index.php?path=0x789. Accessed 12 Sep 2011.
- Lefebvre, H. (1991). Production of space. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Mäger, M., Servinski, M., Raagmaa, G., Saar, A., & Koreinik, K. (2006). Ulata õng ja õpeta seda kasutama. Teach a man to fish. Siret Linnas (Toim.). Linnad ja vallad arvudes 2006 (90–107). Tallinn: Statistikaamet.Google Scholar
- Marjavaara, R. (2008). Second home tourism: The root to displacement in Sweden?, Umeå University, GERUM 2008:1.Google Scholar
- Markusen, A. (2004). Targeting occupations in regional and community economic development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 70(3), 253–268. Reprinted in K. Button, & P. Nijkamp (Eds.) (2007). Regional planning. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Markusen, A. (2007). An arts-based state rural development policy. Special Issue on Rural Development Policy. JRAP, 37(1), 7–9.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Interior (2006). 18.05.2006 käskkiri nr 56 „Setomaa arengu programmi 2006–2010 programmdokumendi kinnitamine“. 18.05.2006 Decree no 56 “Approval of the Setomaa development programme 2006–2010 document” Tallinn.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Interior (2011). Setomaa arengu programm. http://www.siseministeerium.ee/31239/. Accessed 13 Sep 2011.
- Mulkey, D., & Hodges, W. (2003). Using implan to assess local economic impacts. Electronic proceedings of the institute of food and agricultural sciences (IFAS). http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FE/FE16800.pdf. Accessed 14 Mar 2011.
- Paasi, A. (1986). The Institutionalization of regions: A theoretical framework for the understanding of the emergence of regions and the constitutions of regional identity. Fennia, 164, 105–146.Google Scholar
- Rilla, E. (1999). Unique niches: Agritourism in Britain and New England. University of California Small Farm Center, Cooperative Extension. http://sfp.ucdavis.edu/agritourism/unique_niches
- Sotarauta, M. (2007). Leadership in promotion of regional development – an empirical analysis of power and influence tactics in the Finnish regional development activity. University of Tampere. Research Unit For Urban and Regional Development Studies. Tampere. Sente-Working papers 12/2007.Google Scholar
- Servinski, M., Reidolf, M., & Raagmaa, G. (2011). Setomaa on hüa elamise, olõmisõ ja tulõmisõ kotus. Setomaa is a good place for living, staying and coming. Raul Veede (Ed.). Eesti Statistika Kvartalikiri (49–87). Tallinn: Statistikaamet.Google Scholar
- UNESCO (2009). Seto Leelo, Seto polyphonic singing tradition. http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?RL=00173. Accessed 13 Sep 2011.