The Importance of Time Management for the Performance of Franchising Networks

  • Rozenn Perrigot
  • Gérard Cliquet
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


Network performance is very important, both for the franchisor who wants to promote his network and for the prospective franchisee who wants to invest in a store operated under a performing national or international brand name. Nevertheless, this network performance often presents some difficulties in being evaluated. Time management can appear consequently a good measure of the performance. This paper presents the importance of time management for the performance of franchising network, at both levels: for the franchisor and the franchisee. Some periods, such as network or store survival, must be maximized, whereas others, such as durations before internationalization, must be minimized. The difficulties linked to longitudinal studies are also reminded and a particularly adequate methodology is recommended: the survival analysis.


Data Envelopment Analysis Network Performance Time Management Network Survival Event History Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Achabal DD, Heineke JM, Mc Intyre SH (1984) Issues and Perspectives on Retail Productivity. Journal of Retailing, 60(3): 107–127Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allison P (1984) Event History Analysis: Regression and Longitudinal Data. Beverly Hills: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bates T (1995a) A Comparison of Franchise and Independent Small Business Survival Rates. Small Business Economics 7(5):377–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bates T (1995b) Analysis of Survival Rates Among Franchise and Independent Small Business Startups. Journal of Small Business Management 33(2):23–36Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bates T (1998) Survival Patterns Among Newcomers to Franchising. Journal of Business Venturing 13(2): 113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bloom GF (1972) Productivity In The Food Industry: Problems and Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blossfeld HP, Hamerle A, Mayer KU (1989) Event History Analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bucklin LP (1978) Productivity In Marketing. Chicago: AMAGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carpenter GS, Nakamoto K (1988) Market Pioneering, Learning, and Preference. Advances in Consumer Research 15:275–279Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carpenter GS, Nakamoto K (1989) Consumer Preference Formation and Pioneering Advantage. Journal of Marketing Research 26:285–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carroll GR, Hannan MT (2000) The Demography of Corporations and Industries. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cliquet G (1998) Integration and Territory Coverage of the Hypermarket Industry in France: a Relative Entropy Measure. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 8(2):205–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cliquet G (2002) Les réseaux mixtes franchises/succursalisme: apports de la littérature et implications pour le marketing des réseaux de points de vente. Recherche et Applications en Marketing 17(1):57–73Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dekimpe MG and Morrison DG (1991) A Modeling Framework for Analyzing Retail Store Durations. Journal of Retailing 67(1):68–92Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    De La Villarmois O (1999) Evaluer la performance des réseaux bancaires: La méthode DEA. Décisions Marketing 16:39–51Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Donthu N, Yoo B (1998) Retail Productivity Assessment Using Data Envelopment Analysis. Journal of Retailing 74(1):89–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Drucker P (1966) The Effective Executive. NY, Harper and RowGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Falbe CM, Welsh DH (1998) NAFTA And Franchising: A Comparison of Franchisor Perceptions of Characteristics Associated With Franchisee Success and Failure In Canada, Mexico, and The United States. Journal of Business Venturing. 13:151–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghosh A, McLafferty S (1987) Location Strategies for Retail and Service Firms. Lexington, MA: D.C. HeathGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huszagh SM, Huszagh FW, Mclntyre F (1992) International Franchising in the Context of Competitive Strategy and the Theory of the Firm. International Marketing Review 9:5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ingene CA. (1984) Productivity and Functional Shifting in Spatial Retailing: Private and Social Perspectives. Journal of Retailing 60(3): 15–36Google Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Kaufmann PJ, Dant R (1996) Multi-unit franchising: Growth and management issues. Journal of Business Venturing 11(5):343–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaufmann PJ, Donthu N, Brooks CM (2000) Multi-Unit Retail Site Selection Processes: Incorporating Opening Delays and Unidentified Competition. Journal of Retailing 76(1):113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lafontaine F (1992) How and Why Do Franchisors Do What They Do; A Survey Report, in Franchising Passport for Growth and World Opportunity. Kaufmann PJ ed., Proceedings of the Society of Franchising, Lincoln, NE: International Center for Franchise Studies, University of NebraskaGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li S (1995-1996) Survival analysis. Marketing Research 7(4):17–23Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lusch RF, Moon SY (1984) An Exploratory Analysis of the Correlates of Labor Productivity in Retailing. Journal of Retailing 60(3):37–61Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Manolis C, Dahlstrom R, Nygaard A (1995) A Preliminary Investigation of Ownership Conversions in Franchised Distribution Systems. Journal of Applied Business Research 11(2): 1–8Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Melnyk SA, Pagell M, Jorae G, Sharpe AS (1995) Applying Survival Analysis to Operations Management: Analyzing the Differences in Donor Classes in the Blood Donation Process. Journal of Operations Management 13:339–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oxenfeldt AR, Kelly AO (1968-69) Will Successful Franchise Systems Eventually Become Wholly-Owned Chains?, Journal of Retailing, 44:69–83Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Parsons L (1992) Productivity Versus Relative Efficiency in Marketing: Past and Future? In: Lilien G, Laurent G, Pras B (Eds.), Research Traditions in Marketing. Kluwer, Amsterdam, pp 169–196Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Perrigot R (2002) La pluralité des formes statutaires au sein d’un réseau de points de vente: une application à la survie des chaînes de pizzas en France entre 1987 et 2001. Sciences de Gestion et Pratiques Managériales, V. Giard Ed., Economica.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Perrigot R, Cliquet G (2003) Survival Analysis Along a Hotel Chain Classification in France. Influence of Network Managerial Form and Nationality on the Fall in the Classification, International Franchising in Developed Markets: Western and Northern Europe, edited by Dianne Welsh and Ilan Alon.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Perrigot R, Cliquet G, Mesbah M (2004) Possible Applications of Survival Analysis in Franchising Research International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 14(1): 129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
    Robinson WT, Forneil C (1985) Sources of Market Pioneer Advantages in Consumer Goods Industries. Journal of Marketing Research 22:305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robinson WT (1988) Sources of Market Pioneer Advantages: The Case of Industrial Goods Industries. Journal of Marketing Research 25:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shane S (1996) Hybrid Organizational Arrangements and their Implications for Firm Growth and Survival: A Study of New Franchisors. The Academy of Management Journal 39(1):216–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shane S (1998a) Making New Franchise Systems Work, Strategic Management Journal 19:697–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shane S, Spell C (1998b) Factors for New Franchise Success. Sloan Management Review 39(3):43–50Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shane S, Foo MD (1999) New Firm Survival: Institutional Explanations for New Franchisor Mortality. Management Science, 45(2):142–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stanworth J, Purdy D, Price S, Zafiris N (1998) Franchise Versus Conventional Small Business Failure Rates in the US and UK: More Similarities than Differences. International Small Business Journal 16(3):56–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Star AD, Massel MD (1981) Survival Rates for Retailers. Journal of Retailing 5:87–99.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thomas RR, Barr RS, Cron WL, Slocum Jr JW (1998) A Process for Evaluating Retail Store Efficiency: A Restricted DEA Approach. International Journal of Research in Marketing 15:487–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rozenn Perrigot
    • 1
  • Gérard Cliquet
    • 1
  1. 1.CREREG UMR CNRS 6585, Center for Research on Economics and Management, Institute of Management of Rennes (IGR-IAE)University of Rennes 1Rennes Cedex 7France

Personalised recommendations