Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


The starting point of this thesis is a dynamic view of organizations. The dynamic view assumes that organizations need to constantly adapt to their environment to ensure long-term survival and economic success (Levinthal 1992:427; Teece et al. 1997:509; Helfat and Peteraf 2003:1007; Eisenhardt and Martin 2000:1105). A study solicited by the CEO of Royal Dutch Shell found that even the survival of large, globally operating companies is threatened in times of discontinuous change. The study calculated the average life expectancy of a Fortune 500 company (an index covering the largest private companies in the world) to be less than 40 years (De Geus1997a:2–6).


Maturity Model Strategic Management Innovation Management Discontinuous Change Dynamic View 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Åhman M, Nilsson LJ (2008) Path dependency and the future of advanced vehicles and biofuels. Util Pol 16(2):80–89Google Scholar
  2. Andriopoulos C, Lewis MW (2009) Exploitation-exploration tensions and organizational ambidexterity: managing paradoxes of innovation. Organ Sci 20(4):696–717Google Scholar
  3. Ansoff HI (1980) Strategic issue management. Strateg Manage J 1(2):131–148Google Scholar
  4. Arnold HM (2003) Technology shocks: origins, management responses and firm performance. Physica Verlag Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co.KG, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayres RU (2000) On forecasting discontinuities. Technol Forecast Soc Change 65(1):81–97Google Scholar
  6. Blind K, Cuhls K, Grupp H (1999) Current foresight activities in central Europe. Technol Forecast Soc Change 60(1):15–35Google Scholar
  7. Bridges W (1986) Managing organizational transitions. Organ Dyn 15(1):24–33Google Scholar
  8. Brown SL, Eisenhardt KM (1997) The art of continuous change: linking complexity theory and time-paced evolution in relentlessly shifting organizations. Adm Sci Q 42(1):1–34Google Scholar
  9. Camp RC (2003) Best practice benchmarking: the path to excellence. GBN Rev 2003/2004:12–17Google Scholar
  10. Chandler AD (1962) Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Chandy RK, Tellis GJ (1998) Organizing for radical product innovation: the overlooked role of willingness to cannibalize. J Mark Res 35(4):474–487Google Scholar
  12. Chesbrough HW (2003) The era of open innovation. MIT Sloan Manage Rev 44(3):35–41Google Scholar
  13. Christensen CM, Overdorf M (2000) Meeting the challenge of disruptive change. Harv Bus Rev 78(2):66–76Google Scholar
  14. Cohen WM, Levinthal DA (1990) Absorptive-capacity – a new perspective on learning and innovation. Adm Sci Q 35(1):128–152Google Scholar
  15. Coombs R, Hull R (1998) Knowledge management practices and path-dependency in innovation. Res Policy 27(3):237–253Google Scholar
  16. Cuhls K (2001) Foresight with Delphi surveys in Japan. Technol Anal Strateg Manage 13(4):555–569Google Scholar
  17. Cuhls K (2003) From forecasting to foresight processes – new participative foresight activities in Germany. J Forecast 22(2–3):93–111Google Scholar
  18. Day GS, Schoemaker P (2004a) Peripheral vision: sensing and acting on weak signals. Long Range Plann 37(2):117–121Google Scholar
  19. De Toni A, Tonchia S (2005) Definitions and linkages between operational and strategic flexibilities. Omega 33(6):525–540Google Scholar
  20. Deutsch CH (2008) At Kodak, some old things are new again New York times. New York Times, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Dodgson M, Gann D, Salter A (2006) The role of technology in the shift towards open innovation: the case of Procter & Gamble. R D Manage 36(3):333–346Google Scholar
  22. Dushnitsky G, Lenox MJ (2005a) When do firms undertake R&D by investing in new ventures? Strateg Manage J 26(10):947–965Google Scholar
  23. Eisenhardt KM, Martin JA (2000) Dynamic capabilities: what are they? Strateg Manage J 21(10–11):1105–1121Google Scholar
  24. Eppler MJ, Platts KW (2009) Visual strategizing: the systematic use of visualization in the strategic-planning process. Long Range Plann 42(1):42–74Google Scholar
  25. Fine CH (1998) Clockspeed: winning industry control in the age of temporary advantage. Perseus Books, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  26. Gemünden HG, Heydebreck P, Herden R (1992) Technological interweavement: a means of achieving innovation success. R D Manage 22(4):359–376Google Scholar
  27. Gemünden HG, Ritter T, Heydebreck P (1996) Network configuration and innovation success: an empirical analysis in German high-tech industries. Int J Res Mark 13(5):449–462Google Scholar
  28. Gemünden HG, Salomo S, Hölzle K (2007) Role models for radical innovations in times of open innovation. Creativity Innov Manage 16(4):408–421Google Scholar
  29. Gersick CJG (1991) Revolutionary change theories – a multilevel exploration of the punctuated equilibrium paradigm. Acad Manage Rev 16(1):10–36Google Scholar
  30. Gerybadze A (1990) Technological forecasting. In: Tschirky H, Hess W, Lang P (eds) Technologie-Management: Erfolgsfaktor mit zunehmender Bedeutung. Verlag Industrielle Organisation, Zürich, pp 71–100Google Scholar
  31. Godet M, Monti R, Roubelat F (2004) Manuel de prospective stratégique – 1. Une indiscipline intellectuelle. Dunod, ParisGoogle Scholar
  32. Grant L (1998) Why Kodak still isn’t fixed America’s other famous troubled giants–IBM, GM, sears–got turned around. Not this one. Can CEO George Fisher’s big new shakeup do the job? FortuneGoogle Scholar
  33. Gruber M et al (2003) Die Rolle des Corporate Foresight im Innovationsprozess: Ziele, Ausgestaltung und Erfahrungen am Beispiel der Siemens AG. Zeitschrift Führung + Organisation (zfo) 72(5):285–290Google Scholar
  34. Grupp H, Linstone HA (1999) National technology foresight activities around the globe – resurrection and new paradigms. Technol Forecast Soc Change 60(1):85–94Google Scholar
  35. Gunasekaran A, Lai KH, Cheng TCE (2008) Responsive supply chain: a competitive strategy in a networked economy. Omega Int J Manage Sci 36(4):549–564Google Scholar
  36. Hambrick DC (1982) Environmental scanning and organizational strategy. Strateg Manage J 3(2):159–174Google Scholar
  37. Helfat CE, Peteraf MA (2003) The dynamic resource-based view: capability lifecycles. Strateg Manage J 24(10):997–1010Google Scholar
  38. Herrmann A, Gassmann O, Eisert U (2007) An empirical study of the antecedents for radical product innovations and capabilities for transformation. J Eng Technol Manage 24(1–2):92–120Google Scholar
  39. Herzhoff M (2004) Szenario-Technik in der chemischen Industrie: Untersuchung von Software-Tools am Beispiel einer Studie zum Markt für Flammschutzmittel im Jahr 2010 und der praktischen Bedeutung der Szenario-Technik Fakultät II – Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften. Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, p 240Google Scholar
  40. Hines A (2002) A practitioner’s view of the future of futures studies. Futures 34(3–4):337–347Google Scholar
  41. Hitt M, Keats B, DeMarie S (1998) Navigating in the new competitive landscape: building strategic flexibility and competitive advantage in the 21st century. Acad Manage Exec 12(4):22–42Google Scholar
  42. Humphrey WS (1989) Managing the software process. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  43. Jain SC (1984) Environmental scanning in United-States corporations. Long Range Plann 17(2):117–128Google Scholar
  44. Jemison DB (1984) The importance of boundary spanning roles in strategic decision-making. J Manage Stud 21(2):131–152Google Scholar
  45. Kahn KB, Barczak G, Moss R (2006) Perspective: establishing an NPD best practices framework. J Prod Innov Manage 23(2):106–116Google Scholar
  46. Kaplan RS, Norton DP (2006) How to implement a new strategy without disrupting your organization. Harv Bus Rev 84(3):100–109Google Scholar
  47. Kessler EH, Bierly PE (2002) Is faster really better? an empirical test of the implications of innovation speed. IEEE Trans Eng Manage 49(1):2–12Google Scholar
  48. Kessler EH, Chakrabarti AK (1996) Innovation speed: a conceptual model of context, antecedents, and outcomes. Acad Manage Rev 21(4):1143–1191Google Scholar
  49. Kinra A, Kotzab H (2008) A macro-institutional perspective on supply chain environmental complexity. Int J Prod Econ 115(2):283–295Google Scholar
  50. Kodama M (2007) Innovation and knowledge creation through leadership-based strategic community: case study on high-tech company in Japan. Technovation 27(3):115–132Google Scholar
  51. Krubasik EG (1982) Strategische Waffe. Wirtschaftswoche 26(25):28–33Google Scholar
  52. Krystek U (2007) Strategische Frühaufklärung. Zeitschrift für Controlling & Management 2007(Sonderheft 2):50–58Google Scholar
  53. Lambe CJ, Spekman RE (1997) Alliances, external technology acquisition, and discontinuous technological change. J Prod Innov Manage 14(2):102–116Google Scholar
  54. Langerak F, Hultink EJ (2005) The impact of new product development acceleration approaches on speed and profitability: lessons for pioneers and fast followers. IEEE Trans Eng Manage 52(1):30–42Google Scholar
  55. Lee H, Smith KG, Grimm CM (2003) The effect of new product radicality and scope on the extent and speed of innovation diffusion. J Manage 29(5):753–768Google Scholar
  56. Lesca H, Caron M-L (1995) Veille stratégique : créer une intelligence collective au sein de l’entreprise. Revue francaise de Gestion, pp 10558–10568Google Scholar
  57. Levinthal D (1992) Surviving Schumpeterian environments: an evolutionary perspective. Ind Corp Change 1(3):427–443Google Scholar
  58. Lichtenthaler U (2008b) Open innovation in practice: an analysis of strategic approaches to technology transactions. IEEE Trans Eng Manage 55(1):148–157Google Scholar
  59. Lichtenthaler U (2009) Absorptive capacity, environmental turbulence, and the complementarity of organizational learning processes. Acad Manage J 52(4):822–846Google Scholar
  60. Liebl F (2005) Technologie-Frühaufklärung: Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven. In: Albers S, Gassmann O (eds) Handbuch Technologie- und Innovationsmanagement: Strategie Umsetzung – Controlling. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 119–136Google Scholar
  61. Lucas HC, Goh JM (2009) Disruptive technology: how Kodak missed the digital photography revolution. J Strateg Inf Syst 18(1):46–55Google Scholar
  62. Macher JT, Richman BD (2004) Organizational reponses to discontinuous innovation: a case study approach. Int J Innov Manage 8(1):87–114Google Scholar
  63. Martin BR (1995) Foresight in science and technology. Technol Anal Strateg Manage 7(2):139–168Google Scholar
  64. Matthyssens P, Pauwels P, Vandenbempt K (2005) Strategic flexibility, rigidity and barriers to the development of absorptive capacity in business markets: themes and research perspectives. Ind Mark Manage 34(6):547–554Google Scholar
  65. May RC, Stewart WH, Sweo R (2000) Environmental scanning behavior in a transitional economy: evidence from Russia. Acad Manage J 43(3):403–427Google Scholar
  66. McMaster M (1996) Foresight: exploring the structure of the future. Long Range Plann 29(2):149–155Google Scholar
  67. Miller S (1997) Implementing strategic decisions: four key success factors. Organ Stud 18(4):577–602Google Scholar
  68. Nadkarni S, Narayanani VK (2007) Strategic schemas, strategic flexibility, and firm performance: the moderating role of industry clockspeed. Strateg Manage J 28(3):243–270Google Scholar
  69. Niazi M, Wilson D, Zowghi D (2005) A maturity model for the implementation of software process improvement: an empirical study. J Syst Softw 74(2):155–172Google Scholar
  70. Nieto M, Quevedo P (2005) Absorptive capacity, technological opportunity, knowledge spillovers, and innovative effort. Technovation 25(10):1141–1157Google Scholar
  71. Nijssen EJ, Hillebrand B, Vermeulen PAM (2005) Unraveling willingness to cannibalize: a closer look at the barrier to radical innovation. Technovation 25(12):1400–1409Google Scholar
  72. O’Connor GC, DeMartino R (2006) Organizing for radical innovation: an exploratory study of the structural aspects of RI management systems in large established firms. J Prod Innov Manage 23(6):475–497Google Scholar
  73. Osborn CS (1998) Systems for sustainable organizations: emergent strategies, interactive controls and semi-formal information. J Manage Stud 35(4):481–509Google Scholar
  74. Parry ME et al (2009) The impact of NPD strategy, product strategy, and NPD processes on perceived cycle time. J Prod Innov Manage 26(6):627–639Google Scholar
  75. Paulk MC (1995) The capability maturity model: guidelines for improving the software process. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  76. Perona M, Miragliotta G (2004) Complexity management and supply chain performance assessment. A field study and a conceptual framework. Int J Prod Econ 90(1):103–115Google Scholar
  77. Peters L, O’Connor GC (2002) Building the capacity for change: radical innovation and new product development in the multinational firm IEMC – managing technology for the new economy. Cambridge, UK, pp 612–616Google Scholar
  78. Phillips F (2007) On S-curves and tipping points. Technol Forecast Soc Change 74(6):715–730Google Scholar
  79. Pina e Cunha M, Chia R (2007) Using teams to avoid peripheral blindness. Long Range Plann 40(6):559–573Google Scholar
  80. Pittaway L et al (2004) Networking and innovation: a systematic review of the evidence. Int J Manage Rev 5–6(4–5):137–168Google Scholar
  81. Pitterman B (2000) Telcordia technologies: the journey to high maturity. IEEE Softw 17(4):89–96Google Scholar
  82. Porter AL et al (2004) Technology futures analysis: toward integration of the field and new methods. Technol Forecast Soc Change 71(3):287–303Google Scholar
  83. Poskela J, Martinsuo M (2009) Management control and strategic renewal in the front end of innovation. J Prod Innov Manage 26(6):671–684Google Scholar
  84. Product Development Management Association (PDMA) (2006) Body of knowledge: Product Development Management Association (PDMA)Google Scholar
  85. Qualls W, Olshavsky RW, Michaels RE (1981) Shortening of the PlC – an empirical test. J Mark 45(4):76–80Google Scholar
  86. Radnor Z, Noke H (2006) Development of an audit tool for product innovation: the innovation compass. Int J Innov Manage 10(1):1–18Google Scholar
  87. Raisch S et al (2009) Organizational ambidexterity: balancing exploitation and exploration for sustained performance. Organ Sci 20(4):685–695Google Scholar
  88. Rice MP et al (2001) Radical innovation: triggering initiation of opportunity recognition and evaluation. R D Manage 31(4):409–420Google Scholar
  89. Ritter T, Gemunden HG (2003) Network competence: its impact on innovation success and its antecedents. J Bus Res 56(9):745–755Google Scholar
  90. Rohrbeck R, Hölzle K, Gemünden HG (2009b) Opening up for competitive advantage – How Deutsche Telekom creates an open innovation ecosystem. R D Manage 39(4):420–430Google Scholar
  91. Roll M, Weber J (2006) Gestaltung strategischer Frühaufklärungssystems im Lichte neuer empirischer Erkenntnisse. In: Hutzschenreuter T, Griess-Nega T (eds) Krisenmangement: Grundlagen – Strategien – Instrumente. Gabler, Wiesbaden, p 815Google Scholar
  92. Rollwagen I (2008) Zeit und Innovation. Zur Synchronisation von Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Politik bei der Genese der Virtual-Reality-Technologien. Transcript Verlag, BielefeldGoogle Scholar
  93. Romanelli E, Tushman ML (1994) Organizational transformation as punctuated equilibrium – an empirical-test. Acad Manage J 37(5):1141–1166Google Scholar
  94. Saffo P (2007) Six rules for effective forecasting. Harv Bus Rev 85(7–8):122–131Google Scholar
  95. Schumpeter J, Opie R (1934) The theory of economic development. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  96. Schwarz J-O (2007) Assessing future disorders in organizations: implications for diagnosing and treating schizophrenic, depressed or paranoid organizations. Foresight 9(2):15–26Google Scholar
  97. Shrivastava P, Grant JH (1985) Empirically derived models of strategic decision-making processes. Strateg Manage J 6(2):97–113Google Scholar
  98. Sood A, Tellis GJ (2005) Technological evolution and radical innovation. J Mark 69(3):152–168Google Scholar
  99. Stevens GA, Burley J (2003) Piloting the rocket of radical innovation. Res Technol Manage 46(2):16–25Google Scholar
  100. Teece DJ, Pisano G, Shuen A (1997) Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strateg Manage J 18(7):509–533Google Scholar
  101. Tellis GJ (2006) Disruptive technology or visionary leadership? J Prod Innov Manage 23(1):34–38Google Scholar
  102. Tushman ML, Anderson P (1986) Technological discontinuities and organizational environments. Adm Sci Q 31(3):439–465Google Scholar
  103. Tushman ML, Oreilly CA (1996) Ambidextrous organizations: managing evolutionary and revolutionary change. Calif Manage Rev 38(4):8–30Google Scholar
  104. Tushman ML, Virany B, Romanelli E (1985) Executive succession, strategic reorientations, and organization evolution – the Minicomputer industry as a case in point. Technol Soc 7(2–3):297–313Google Scholar
  105. Tushman ML, Newman WH, Romanelli E (1986) Convergence and upheaval – managing the unsteady pace of organizational evolution. Calif Manage Rev 29(1):29–44Google Scholar
  106. Upbin B (2000) Kodak’s digital moment.
  107. Van Nottena WF, Sleegersb AM, Van Asselt MBA (2005) The future shocks: on discontinuity and scenario development. Technol Forecast Soc Change 72(2):175–194Google Scholar
  108. Vandermerwe S, Birley S (1997) The corporate entrepreneur: leading organizational transformation. Long Range Plann 30(3):345–352Google Scholar
  109. Vanhaverbeke W, Peeters N (2005) Embracing innovation as strategy: corporate venturing, competence building and corporate strategy making. Creativity Innov Manage 14(3):246–257Google Scholar
  110. von Zedtwitz M, Gassmann O (2002) Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: four different patterns of managing research and development. Res Policy 31(4):569–588Google Scholar
  111. Wilson IH (1973) Futures forecasting for strategic planning at general electric. Long Range Plann 6(2):39–42Google Scholar
  112. Winter SG (2004) Specialised perception, selection, and strategic surprise: learning from the Moths and Bees. Long Range Plann 37(2):163–169Google Scholar
  113. Wissema JG (1981) Futures research – is it useful? Long Range Plann 14(2):29–32Google Scholar
  114. Yamamura G (1999) Process improvement satisfies employees. IEEE Softw 16(5):83–85Google Scholar
  115. Zahra SA, George G (2002) Absorptive capacity: a review, reconceptualization, and extension. Acad Manage Rev 27(2):185–203Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag HD 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Innovation and Technology ManagementTU BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations