The Efficacy of Relational Governance and Value-Creating Relational Investments in Revenue Enhancement in Supplier–Buyer Relationships

  • Muhammad Zafar Yaqub
  • Rudolf Vetschera
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


The paper integrates and extends insights from relational exchange theory and value exchange model to discuss the efficacy of relational governance and value-creating relational investments to affect certain revenue-enhancing (relational) behaviours. It is postulated that value-creating relational investments made in a highly relational environment successful enough to engender high relationship quality (manifested through total partner satisfaction and inter-organizational trust) result in higher interorganizational commitment. This commitment ultimately translates into superior performance of the focal firm since partners exhibit revenue-enhancing behaviours like longevity of relationship, increased business share, positive word-of-mouth and reduced partial defection. It is further argued that the dynamics of model may vary across different phases of relationship life cycle and are moderated by the nodes’ relational polygamy.


Relationship Quality Relational Norm Focal Firm Transaction Cost Economic Exchange Partner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aaker DA (1992) The value of brand equity. J Bus Strategy 13(4):27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achrol R (1991) Evolution of the marketing organization: new forms for turbulent environments. J Market 55:77–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen NJ, Meyer JP (1990) The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. J Occup Psychol 63(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson E, Jap SD (2005) The dark side of close relationships. MIT Sloan Manag Rev 46(3):75–82Google Scholar
  5. Anderson JC, Narus JA (1990) A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships. J Market 54(1):42–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson E, Weitz B (1989) Determinants of continuity in conventional industrial channel dyads. Market Sci 8(4):310–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson E, Weitz BA (1992) The use of pledges to build and sustain commitment in distribution channels. J Market Res 29:18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Artz KW, Brush TH (2000) Asset specificity, uncertainty and relational norms: An examination of coordination costs in collaborative strategic alliances. J Econ Behav Organ 41(4):337–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aulakh PS, Kotabe M, Sahay A (1996) Trust and performance in cross-border marketing partnerships: a behavioural approach. J Int Bus Stud 27(5):1005–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Axelrod R (1984) The evolution of cooperation. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Baier A (1986) Trust and anti-trust. Ethics 96(2):231–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bansal HS, Irving PG, Taylor SF (2004) A three-component model of customer commitment to service providers. J Acad Market Sci 32(3):234–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barber B (1983) The logic and limits of trust. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  14. Barney JB (1991) Sustained resources and sustained competitive advantage. J Manag 17(1):99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barney JB, Hansen MK (1994) Trustworthiness as a source of competitive advantage. Strateg Manag J 15(8):175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bercovitz J, Jap SD, Nickerson JA (2006) Antecedents and implications of cooperative exchange norms. Organ Sci 17(6):724–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berger CA, Bradac JJ (1982) Language and social knowledge: uncertainty in interpersonal relations. London: Edward ArnoldGoogle Scholar
  18. Blau PM (1964) Exchange and power in social life. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Blios KJ, Ivens BS (2006) Measuring relational norms: some methodological issues. Eur J Market 40(3/4):352–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boone SD, Holmes JG (1991) The dynamics of interpersonal trust: Resolving uncertainty in the face of risk. InHinde RA, Groebel J (eds) Cooperation and prosocial behaviour. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 190–211Google Scholar
  21. Camic C (1979) The utilitarians revisited. Am J Sociol 85(3):516–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cochet O, Dormann J, Ehrmann T (2008) Capitalizing on franchisee autonomy: relational forms of governance as controls in idiosyncratic franchise dyads. J Small Bus Manag 46(1):50–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Croonen E (2008) Trust and fairness in franchise relationships. In Hendrikse G, Tunnanen M, Windsperger J, Cliquet G (eds) Strategy and governance of networks: cooperatives, franchising and strategic alliances. Physica-Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  24. Crosby LA, Evans KR, Cowels D (1990) Relationship quality in service selling: an interpersonal influence perspective. J Market 54:68–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cummings LL, Bromiley P (1996) The organizational trust inventory (OTI): development and validation. In Kramer RM, Taylor TR (eds) Trust in organizations: frontiers of theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA, pp 302–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Curral SC, Judge TA (1995) Measuring trust between organizational boundary role persons. Organ Behav Hum Decis Processes 64(2):151–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dant RP, Schul PL (1992) Conflict resolution processes in contractual channels of distribution. J Market 56(1):38–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dicky MH, McKnight DH, George JF (2007) The role of trust in franchise organizations. Int J Organ Anal 15(3):251–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duncan R, Weiss A (1979) Organizational learning: implications for organizational design. Res Organ Behav 1:75–123Google Scholar
  30. Dwyer FR, Schur PH, Oh S (1987) Developing buyer-seller relationships. J Market 51:11–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dyer JH (1996) Specialized supplier networks as a source of competitive advantage: evidence from the auto industry. Strateg Manag J 17(4):271–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dyer JH, Singh H (1998) The relational view: cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Acad Manag Rev 23:660–679Google Scholar
  33. Ferguson RF, Paulin M, Möslein K, Müller C (2005) Relational governance, communication and the performance of biotechnology partnerships. J Small Bus Enterp Dev 12(3):395–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fink RC, Edelman LF, Hatten KF (2007) Supplier performance improvements in relational exchanges. J Bus Ind Market 22(1):29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fiol CM, Lyles MA (1985) Organizational learning. Acad Manag Rev 10(4):803–813Google Scholar
  36. Frazier GL, Spekman RE, O’Neil CR (1988) Just-in-time exchange relationships in industrial markets. J Market 52(4):52–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frazier GL, James DG, Sudhir HK (1989) Dealer dependence levels and reciprocal action in a channel of distribution of a developing country. J Market 53:50–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Friman M, Garling T, Millett B, Mattsson J, Johnston R (2002) An analysis of international business-to-business relationships based on the Commitment-Trust theory. Ind Market Manag 31(5):403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Furubotn EG, Richter R (1997) Institutions and economic theory: The contribution of the new institutional economics. University of Michigan Press, MIGoogle Scholar
  40. Ganesan S 1994 Determinants of long-term orientation in buyer-seller relationships. J Market 58(2):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garbarino E, Johnson MS (1999) The different roles of satisfaction, trust and commitment in customer relationships. J Market 63(2):70–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gaski JF, Nevin JR (1985) The differential effects of exercised and unexercised power sources in a marketing channel. J Market Res 22(May):130–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Geyskens I, Steenkamp JEM (2000) Economic and social satisfaction: measurement and relevance to marketing channel relationships. J Retailing 76(1):11–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Geyskens I, Steenkamp JEM, Kumar N (1999) A meta analysis of satisfaction in marketing channel relationships. J Market Res 36(2):223–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Geyskens I, Steenkamp JEM, Scheer LK, Kumar N (1996) The effects of trust and interdependence on relationship commitment: a trans-atlantic study. Int J Res Market 13(4):303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gibbs JP (1981) Norms, deviance and social control: conceptual matters. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Glady N, Baesens B, Croux C (2008) Modeling customer loyalty using customer lifetime value. (accessed on 11 Nov 2008)
  48. Granovetter M (1985) Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. Am J Sociol 91:481–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Granovetter M (1992) Problems of explanation in economic sociology. In Nohria N, Eccles RG (eds) Networks and organizations: structure, forms, and action. Harvard University Press, Boston, pp 25–56Google Scholar
  50. Grant AH, Schlesinger LA (1995) Realize your customers full profit potential. Harv Bus Rev 73(5):59–72Google Scholar
  51. Gruen TW, Summers JO, Acito F (2000) Relationship marketing activities, commitment, and membership behaviours in professional associations. J Market 64(3):34–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gulati R (1995) Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances. Acad Manag J 38(1):85–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gulati R (1998) Alliances and networks. Strateg Manag J 19(4):293–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gulati R, Nickerson JA (2008) Interorganizational trust, governance choice, and exchange performance. Organ Sci 19:688–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gulati R, Tarun K, Nohria N (1994) Unilateral commitments and the importance of process in alliances. Sloan Manag Rev 35(3):61–69Google Scholar
  56. Gulati R, Nohria N, Zaheer A (2000) Strategic networks. Strateg Manag J 21(3):203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gummesson E (2002) Total relationship marketing: rethinking marketing management. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  58. Gundlach GT, Achrol RS (1993) Governance in exchange contract law and its alternatives. J Public Policy Market 12(2):141–155Google Scholar
  59. Gundlach GT, Achrol RS, Mentzer JT (1995) The structure of commitment in exchange. J Market 59(1):78–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hagedoorn M, Bunuk BP, Van de Valiert E (1998) Opening the black box between justice and reactions to unfavourable outcomes in workplace. Soc Justice Res 11(1):41–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hagen JM, Choe S (1998) Trust in Japanese interfirm relations: institutional sanctions matter. Acad Manag Rev 23(3):589–600Google Scholar
  62. Heide J, John G (1992) Does norms matter in marketing relationships? J Market 56(2):32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Henning-Thurau T, Klee A (1997) The impact of customer satisfaction and relationship quality on customer retention: A critical reassessment and model development. Psychol Market 14(68):737–764Google Scholar
  64. Henning-Thurau T, Gwinner KP, Gremler DD (2002) Understanding relationship marketing outcomes: an integration of relationship benefits and relationship quality. J Serv Res 4(3):230–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Herscovitch L, Meyer JP (2002) Commitment to organizational change: extension of a three-component model. J Appl Psychol 87(3):474–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hess J, Story J (2005) Trust-based commitment: multidimensional consumer-brand relationships. J Consum Market 22(6):313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hosmer LT (1995) Trust: the connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Acad Manag Rev 20(2):379–404Google Scholar
  68. Humphrey RH, Ashforth BE (2000) Buyer-supplier alliances in the automobile industry: how exit-voice strategies influence interpersonal relationships. J Organ Behav 21(6):713–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hunt SD, Nevin JR (1974) Power in a channel of distribution: sources and consequences. J Market Res 11(May):186–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hwang P (2006) Asset specificity and the fear of exploitation. J Econ Behav Organ 60(3):423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ivens BS (2004) How relevant are different forms of relational behaviour? An empirical test based on Mcneil’s exchange framework. J Bus Ind Market 19(5):300–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jap SD (2001) Perspectives on joint competitive advantages in buyer-supplier relationships. Int J Res Market 18(1,2):19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jap SD, Ganesan S (2000) Control mechanisms and the relationship life cycle: Implications for safeguarding specific investments and developing commitment. J Market Res 37(2):227–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Joshi AW, Stump RL (1999) The contingent effect of specific assets investment on joint action in manufacturer-supplier relationships. J Acad Market Sci 27(3):291–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kaufman PJ (1987) Commercial exchange relationships and the negotiator’s dilemma. Negot Journal 3(1):73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaufman PJ, Stern LW (1988) Relational exchange norms, perceptions of unfairness, and retained hostility in commercial litigation. J Conflict Resolut 32(3):534–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Keith JE, Lee D, Lee RG (2004) The effect of relational exchange between the service provider and the customer on the customer’s perception of value. J Relatsh Market 3(1):3–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kelman HC (1958) Compliance, identification, and internalization three processes of attitude change. J Conflict Resolut (pre-1986) 2:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kogut B (1991) Joint ventures and the option to expand and acquire. Manag Sci 37:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kumar N (1996) The power of trust in manufacturer-retailer relationships. Harv Bus Rev 74(6):92–106Google Scholar
  81. Larson, A (1992) Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: a study of the governance of exchange relationships. Adm Sci Q 37:76–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Leiblein MJ, Reuer JJ, Dalsace F (2002) Do make or buy decisions matter? The Influence of organizational governance on technological performance. Strateg Manag J 23(9):817–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lubell MJ, Scholz T (2001) Cooperation, reciprocity, and the collective-action heuristic. Am J Polit Sci 45(1):160–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Luhmann N (1979) Trust and power. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  85. Luthans F (2006) Organizational behaviour. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Macintosh G, Lockshin LS (1997) Retail relationships and store loyalty: a multi-level perspective. Int J Res Market 14(5):487–5497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. MacMillan K, Money K, Money A, Downing S (2005) Relationship marketing in the not-for-profit sector: an extension and application of the commitment-trust theory. J Bus Res 58(6):806–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Malhotra D, Murnighan JK (2002) The effects contracts on interpersonal trust. Adm Sci Q 47(3/4):534–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martin SS, Gutierrez J, Camarer C (2004) Trust as the key to relational commitment. J Relatsh Market 3(1):53–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mayer R, Davis J (1999) The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: a field quasi-experiment. J Appl Psychol 84(1):123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mayer R, Davis J, Schoorman F (1995) An integrative model of organizational trust. Acad Manag Rev 20(3):709–734Google Scholar
  92. McDonald GW (1981) Structural exchange and marital interaction. J Marriage Fam November:825–839Google Scholar
  93. Mcneil IR (1978) Contracts: adjustment of long-term economic relations under classical, neo-classical, and relational contract law. Northwest Univ Law Rev 72:854–905Google Scholar
  94. Mcneil IR (1980) The new social contract. Yale University Press, CTGoogle Scholar
  95. Mcneil IR (1983) Values in contract. Northwest Univ Law Rev 75(6):1018–1063Google Scholar
  96. Mishra AK (1996) Organizational responses to crisis: the centrality of trust. In: Kramer RM, Taylor TR (eds) Trust in organizations: frontiers of theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA, pp 261–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mohr J, Spekman R (1994) Characteristics of partnership success: Partnership attributes, communication behaviour, and conflict resolution techniques. Strateg Manag J 15(2):135–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Moorman C, Zaltman G, Deshpande R (1992) Relationships between providers and users of market research: dynamics of trust within and between organizations. J Market Res 29(8):314–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Morgan RM, Hunt SD (1994) The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. J Market 58(3):20–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mouzas S, Henneberg S, Naudé P (2007) Trust and reliance in business relationships. Eur J Market 41(9/10):1016–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mukherjee A, Nath P (2007) Role of electronic trust in online retailing; A re-examination of the commitment-trust theory. Eur J Market 41(9/10):1173–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Murray R (1980) Ad techniques-move customers up the ‘loyalty ladder’. Bank Market 12(11):37Google Scholar
  103. Noordewier TG, John G, Nevin JR (1990) Performance outcomes of purchasing arrangements in industrial buyer-vendor relationships. J Market 54(4):80–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nooteboom B, Berger H, Noorderhaven NG (1997) Effects of trust and governance on relational risk. Acad Manag J 40(2):308–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Parkhe A (1983) The Structure of strategic alliances: a game-theoretic and transaction cost examination on the dissolution of joint ventures. Acad Manag J 40(2):279–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Park SH, Ungson G (2001) Inter-firm rivalry and managerial complexity: a conceptual framework of alliance failure. Organ Sci 12(1):37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Paulin M, Ferguson RJ, Salazar AMA (1999) External effectiveness of service management: a study of business-to-business relationships in Mexico, Canada and the USA. Int J Serv Ind Manag 10(5):409–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Paulin M, Perrien J, Ferguson R (1997) Relational contract norms and the effectiveness of commercial banking relationships. Int J Serv Ind Manag 8(5):435–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Poppo L, Zhou KZ, Ryu S (2008) Alternative origins to interorganizational trust: an interdependence perspective on the shadow of the past and the shadow of the future. Organ Sci 19(1):39–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Porter M E, Fuller MB (1986) Coalitions and global strategy in Porter, M. E., competition in global industries. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, pp 315–344Google Scholar
  111. Reichheld FF (1993) Loyalty-based management. Harv Bus Rev 71(2):64–73Google Scholar
  112. Reichheld FF (1996) Learning from customer defections. Harv Bus Rev 74(2):56–67Google Scholar
  113. Reichheld FF, Sasser WE (1990) Zero defections: quality comes to services. Harv Bus Rev 68(5):105–111Google Scholar
  114. Rempel JK, Holmes JG, Zanna MP (1985) Trust in close relationships. J Pers Soc Psychol 49(1):95–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Reuer JJ, Arino A (2006) Contractual complexity in strategic alliances. Working paper No. 202/2005. Fundaction de Las Cajas de AhorrosGoogle Scholar
  116. Ring PS, Van De Van AH (1994) Developmental processes of cooperative interorganizational relationships. Acad Manag J 19(1):90–118Google Scholar
  117. Ring PS, Van De Ven AH (1992) Structuring cooperative relationships between organizations. Strateg Manag J 13(7):483–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Roehrich G, Spencer R, Valette-Florence P (2002) The nature of relationship atmosphere and links with the value of relationships: the case of Europe and Asia. Asia-Europe IMP Conference, PerthGoogle Scholar
  119. Ryu S, Park JE, Min S (2007) Factors of determining long-term orientation in interfirm relationships. J Bus Res 60(12):1225–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Samouel P (2007) Does time impact relational norms in bilateral exchange? The small business case. J Small Bus Enterp Dev 14(1):136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schelling TC (1960) The strategy of conflict. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
  122. Schul PL, Taylor EL, William MP (1985) Channel climate: Its impact on channel members’ satisfaction. J Retailing 61(2):9–38Google Scholar
  123. Spekman RE (1988) Strategic supplier selection: understanding long-term buyer. Bus Horiz 31(4):75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stump RL, Heide JB (1996) Controlling supplier opportunism in industrial relationships. J Market Res 33(4):431–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Styles C, Hersch L (2005) Relationship formation in international joint ventures: insights from Australian-Malaysian international joint ventures. J Int Market 13(3):105–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Taylor M (1987) The possibility of cooperation. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Thibaut JW, Kelly HH (1959) The social psychology of groups. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  128. Tokman M, Deitz GD, Richey RG, Morgan RM (2006) Managing relationship stability in joint ventures. American Marketing Association. Conference Proceedings. ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  129. Uzzi B (1997) Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: the paradox of embeddedness. Adm Sci Q 42(1):35–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Vázquez R, Iglesias V, Rodríguez-del-Bosque I (2007) The efficacy of alternative mechanisms in safeguarding specific investments from opportunism. J Bus Ind Market 22(7):498–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Verhoef PC, Franses PH, Hoekstra JC (2002) The effect of relational constructs on customer referrals and number of services purchased from a multiservice provider: Does age of relationship matter? J Acad Market Sci 30(3):202–216Google Scholar
  132. Volery T, Mensik S (1998) The role of trust in creating effective alliances: a managerial perspective. J Bus Ethics 17:987–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Voss KE, Johnson JL, Culln JB, Sakano T, Takenouchi H (2006) Relational exchange in US-Japanese marketing strategic alliances. Int Market Rev 23(6):610–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Williamson OE (1979) Transaction-cost economics: the governance of contractual relations. J Law Econ 22(2):233–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Williamson OE (1985) The economic institutions of capitalism. Free Press, NYGoogle Scholar
  136. Williamson OE (1991) Comparative economic organization: the analysis of discrete structural alternatives. Adm Sci Q 36(2):269–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wilson DT (1995) An integrated model of buyer-seller relationships. J Acad Market Sci 23(4):335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Yang J, Wang J, Wong CWY, Lai K (2008) Relational stability and alliance performance in supply chain. Omega 36(4):600–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yaqub MZ (2009a) A conceptual model for the value-based management in strategic networks. Int J Knowl Cult Change Manag 8(11):105–115Google Scholar
  140. Yaqub MZ (2009b) The antecedents, consequences, and control of opportunistic behaviour in strategic networks. J Bus Econ Res 7(2):15–31Google Scholar
  141. Zaheer A, McEvily B, Perrone V (1998) Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of interorganizational and interpersonal trust on performance. Organ Sci 9(22):141–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zaheer A, Venkatraman N (1995) Relational governance as an organizational strategy: An empirical test of the role of trust in economic exchange. Strateg Manag J 16(5):373–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Zajac EJ, Olsen CP (1993) From transaction cost to transactional value analysis: Implications for the study of interorganizational strategies. J Manag Stud 30(1):131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zhang C, Cavusgil ST, Roath A (2003) Manufacturer governance of foreign distributor relationships: Do relational norms enhance competitiveness in the export market? J Int Bus Stud 34(6):550–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Zafar Yaqub
  • Rudolf Vetschera
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Business StudiesUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations