Plan C: China’s Development Under the Scarcity of Natural Capital

  • Dajian Zhu
  • Yi Wu


From circular economy to resource saving society, it has gradually been realized that the economic and social development in China is facing the challenge of severe natural capital restriction. With such understanding, we can surely find out that one of the critical issues of China’s modernization drive is whether we can innovatively create a developmental model of a big country under the scarcity of natural capital, as opposed to the traditional modernization Plan A based on the relatively abundant natural capital (Brown 2003). This, in turn, will bring systematic and mechanistic cognition of such current problems as circular economy and resource saving (Zhu 1998, 2001). At present, further theoretical research and political analysis are required. This paper raises some opinions for discussion from three aspects: theory (why), strategy (what), domain and channels (how).


Environmental Pressure Natural Capital Resource Productivity Circular Economy Tertiary Industry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Brown L (2003) Plan B: rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble. Dong Fang, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  2. Daly H (2001) Beyond growth – economics of sustainable development. Shanghai Translation, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  3. Li Z, Qi J (2004) Summary of theories and practices of circular economy. Quant Econ Technol Econ J 9:22–28Google Scholar
  4. Tao Z (2003) Ecological burden and ecological footprint – weight and size of sustainable development [M]. Economic Science, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  5. Wang C (2004) Comments on circular economy problems. Econ Theory Econ Manage 12:14–18Google Scholar
  6. Wu Y (2005) Discussion on several theories of circular economy. China Dev Observ 6:34–41Google Scholar
  7. Xie Z (2005) Book of readings on circular economy for leaderships. Chinese Environmental Science, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  8. Zang S, Zang Y (2002) Comments on some opinions concerning China’s circular economy research. Xi’an Jiao Tong Univ J Soc Sci Version 3:22–26Google Scholar
  9. Zhu D (1998) Sustainable development calls for circular economy. Sci Technol J 9:12–16Google Scholar
  10. Zhu D (2001) From sustainable development to circular economy. World Environ 3:1–10Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag HD 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Sustainable Development and Governance at Tongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations