Competences for Green Development and Leapfrogging: The Case of Newly Industrializing Countries

  • Rainer Walz


The challenge posed by sustainable development is becoming increasingly urgent from a global perspective. The question raised is how economic growth in transforming and newly industrializing countries can be designed in such a way that it does not undermine the achievement of ecological sustainability goals. At the same time, sustainable innovations can also play an important role for the economic and technological development of transformation and emerging economies. In addition, the prospect of establishing lead markets for sustainability technologies adds an additional incentive for emerging economies to move towards sustainability technologies.


Technological Capability Environmental Kuznets Curve Material Efficiency Sustainability Technology BRICS Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abramovitz M (1986) Catching up, forging ahead, and falling behind. J Econ Hist 46:386–406Google Scholar
  2. Archibugi D, Michie J (1998) Technical change, growth and trade: new departures in institutional economics. J Econ Surv 12(3):313–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archibugi D, Pietrobelli C (2003) The globalization of technology and its implications for developing countries – Windows of opportunity or further burden? Technol Forecast Soc Change 70:861–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asheim B, Gertler MS (2005) The geography of innovation: regional innovation systems. In: Fagerberg J et al (eds) The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 291–317Google Scholar
  5. Beise M, Cleff T (2004) Assessing the lead market potential of countries for innovations projects. J Int Manage 10(4):453–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blind K, Bührlen B, Menrad K, Hafner S, Walz R, Kotz C (2004) New products and services: analysis of regulations shaping new markets. Office for Official Publications of the EU, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  7. Blümle G (1994) The importance of environmental policy for international competitiveness. In: Matsugi T, Oberhauser A (eds) Interactions between economy and ecology. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, pp 35–57Google Scholar
  8. Carlsson B, Stankiewicz R (1995) On the nature, function and composition of technological systems. In: Carlsson B (ed) Technological systems and economic performance: the case of factory automation. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen W, Levinthal D (1990) Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Adm Sci Q 35:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Copeland BR, Taylor MS (2004) Trade, growth and the environment. J Econ Lit 42(1):7–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dinda S (2004) Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis: a survey. Ecol Econ 49:431–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DIW, ISI, Roland Berger (2007) Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz: Vertiefende Analyse zu Umweltschutz und Innovation. Schriftenreihe Umwelt, Innovation, Beschäftigung des BMU/UBA, Nr. 01/07, Berlin 2007Google Scholar
  13. Dosi G, Pavitt K, Soete L (1990) The economics of technical change and international trade. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Dutt K (2009) Governance, institutions and the environment-income relationship: a cross-country study. Environ Dev Sustain 11(4):705–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ECORYS et al (2009) Study on the competitiveness of the EU eco-industry. Brussels, Oct 2009Google Scholar
  16. Ekins P (1997) The Kuznets Curve for the environment and economic growth: examining the evidence. Environ Plann A 29:805–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Edquist C (2005) Systems of innovation, perspectives and challenges. In: Fagerberg J et al (eds) The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 181–208Google Scholar
  18. Fagerberg J (1994) Technology and international differences in growth rates. J Econ Lit XXXII:1147–1175Google Scholar
  19. Fagerberg J (1995a) Technology and competitiveness. Oxford Rev Econ Policy 12(3):39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fagerberg J (1995b) User-producer interaction, learning, and competitive advantage. Camb J Econ 19:243–256Google Scholar
  21. Fagerberg J, Godinho M (2005) Innovation and catching-up. In: Fagerberg J et al (eds) The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 514–542Google Scholar
  22. Frietsch R, Schmoch U (2009) Transnational patents and international markets. Scientometrics 82:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grupp H (1998) Foundations of the economics of innovation: theory, measurement, and practice. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  24. Jochem E, Schön M, Angerer G, Ball M, Bradke H, Celik B, Eichhammer W, Mannsbart W, Marscheider-Weidemann F, Nathani C, Walz R, Wietschel M (2004) Werkstoffeffizienz. Energieeinsparpotentiale bei Herstellung und Verwendung energieintensiver Grundstoffe. IRB, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  25. Kline GJ, Rosenberg N (1986) An overview of innovation. In: Landau R, Rosenberg N (eds) The positive sum strategy: harnessing technology for economic growth. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 275–306Google Scholar
  26. Lundvall B-A, Johnson B (1994) The learning economy. J Industry Stud 1:23–42Google Scholar
  27. Malerba F (2002) Sectoral systems of innovation and innovation and production. Res Policy 32:247–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Malerba F (2005) Sectoral systems: how and why innovation differ across sectors. In: Fagerberg J et al (eds) The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 308–406Google Scholar
  29. Malerba F, Nelson R (2008) Catching up: in different sectoral systems. Globelics Working Paper Series No. 08-01Google Scholar
  30. Munasinghe M (1999) Growth-oriented economic policies and their environmental impacts. In: van den Bergh CJM (ed) Handbook of environmental economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 678–708Google Scholar
  31. Nelson RR (2007) The changing institutional requirements for technological and institutional catch up. Int J Technol Learn Innov Dev 1:4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peuckert J (2008) Indicator based evaluation of framework conditions for sustainability innovations in catch up countries, Global Network on Economics of Learning, Innovation and Competence Building Systems (Globelics). Sixth Conference, 22–24 Sept 2008, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  33. Porter M (1990) The competitive advantage of nations. Free, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Porter ME, Van Der Linde C (1995) Toward a new conception of the environment competitiveness relationship. J Econ Perspect 9(4):97–118Google Scholar
  35. Rennings K (2000) Redefining innovation – eco-innovation research and the contribution from ecological economics. Ecol Econ 32(2000):319–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rohn H, Lang-Koetz C, Pastewski N, Lettenmaier N (2009) Identification of technologies, products and strategies with high resource efficiency potential – results of a cooperative selection process. Milestone report from work package 1 of the MARESS project. Resource Efficiency Paper 1.3, Wuppertal, Sept 2009Google Scholar
  37. Roland Berger (2007) Umweltpolitische Innovations- und Wachstumsmärkte aus Sicht der Unternehmen. Forschungsprojekt im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Förderkennzeichen (UFOPLAN) 206 14 132/04, Reihe “Umwelt, Innovation, Beschäftigung”, Band 2/07, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  38. Von Hippel E (1988) Sources of innovation. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Wakelin K (1997) Trade and innovation. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  40. Walz R (2007) The role of regulation for sustainable infrastructure innovations: the case of wind energy. Int J Public Policy 2(1/2):57–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Walz R, Meyer-Krahmer F (2003) Innovation and sustainability in economic development. Invited paper, Global Network on Economics of Learning, Innovation and Competence Building Systems (Globelics) First Conference on “Innovation Systems and Development Strategies for the Third Millennium”, Rio de Janeiro, 2–6 Nov 2003Google Scholar
  42. Walz R, Ostertag K, Eichhammer W, Glienke N, Jappe-Heinze A, Mannsbart W, Peuckert J (2008a) Research and technology competence for a sustainable development in the BRICS countries. IRB, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  43. Walz R, Ragwitz M, Schleich J (2008b) Regulation and innovation: the case of renewable energy technologies. DIME Working Papers on Environmental Innovation, No.2.
  44. WEF (2006) Global competitiveness report 2006. WEF, DavosGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag HD 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovation ResearchKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations