Advertisement

The Challenge: A Transnational Response to HIV/AIDS

  • Diana Sonntag
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)

Abstract

Since the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) more than 25 years ago the virus has been spread all over the world, but unevenly. The concentration of HIV in developing countries is worrying because their governments are often reluctant to intervene. Those governments are faced with other important demands as addressing malnutrition which are competitive for scarce financial resources. Hence, their willingness to establish anti-AIDS programmes is little. The epidemiological, political and social consequences do not only become visible within developing countries, but also globally. This cross-country health interdependency has to be reflected in a worldwide response because isolated interventions do not seem to be effective in the long run. The concept of international public goods was suggested in the academic literature on AIDS to solve international concerns. Several governments and international organisations like the World Bank or the WHO have followed this recommendation by setting this topic on their agendas (World Bank 2000, pp. 2, 6; Engqvist 2001, p. 3). The WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), for example, refer to the provision of HIV prevention as a classic public good intervention in their annual report about the AIDS epidemic in 2005 (UNAIDS and WHO 2005, p. 7). However, it seems that the provision of international public goods does not meet the requirement to result in effective policy responses in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Cross-country benefit and cost spillovers and the resulting difficulties in determining the corresponding prices imply that the control of HIV/AIDS tends to be suboptimal. In contrast to national health-promoting public goods as maintaining hospitals, there is no government that can intervene either by using taxes for financing or by direct provision (Smith et al. 2004, p. 272). This chapter shows why a consideration of international public goods with respect to the global AIDS epidemic is still justified.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Public Good Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ainsworth, M., & Over, M. (1999). Confronting AIDS: Public priorities in a global epidemic (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, L. (1982, June 06). Clue found on homosexuals´ precancer syndrome. The New York Times Google Scholar
  3. Arce, D. (2001). Leadership and the aggregation of international collective action. Oxford Economic Papers, 53, 114–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arce, D., & Sandler, T. (2001). Transnational public goods: Strategies and institutions. European Journal of Political Economy, 17, 493–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arce, D., & Sandler, T. (2002a). Regional public goods: Typologies, provision, financing, and development assistance. EGDI Studies in Brief, 1, 1–3.Google Scholar
  6. Archibugi, D., & Bizzarri, K. (2004). Committing to vaccine R&D: A global science policy priority. Research Policy, 33, 1657–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arhin-Tenkorang, D., & Conceicão, P. (2003). Beyond communicable disease control: Health in the age of globalization. In I. Kaul et al. (Eds.), Providing global public goods. Managing globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barrett, S. (2006). Critical factors for providing transnational public goods. In Secretariat of the International Task Force on Global Public Goods (Ed.), Expert paper series seven: Cross-cutting issues. Stockholm: International Task Force on Global Public Goods.Google Scholar
  9. Boulton, I. C., & Gray-Owen, S. D. (2002). Neisserial binding to CEACAM1 arrests the activation and proliferation of CD4+T lymphocytes. Nature Immunology, 3, 229–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, T., et al. (2001). Effective prevention strategies in low HIV prevalence settings, U.S. agency for international development (USAID), implementing aids prevention and care project (Impact). Arlington, VA: Family Health International (FHI).Google Scholar
  11. Chen, L., Evans, T., & Cash, R. (1999). Health as a global public good. In I. Kaul, I. Grunberg, & M. Stern (Eds.), Global public goods: International cooperation in the 21st century. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Congress of the United States of America. (2008). Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States global leadership against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria reauthorization act of 2008. Washington, DC: Congress of the United States of America.Google Scholar
  13. Corbett, E., et al. (2002). HIV-1/AIDS and the control of other infectious diseases in Africa. The Lancet, 359, 2177–2187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corbett, E., et al. (2003). The growing burden of tuberculosis. Global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163, 1009–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cornes, R. (1993). Dyke maintenance and other stories: Some neglected types of public goods. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108, 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornes, R., & Sandler, T. (1984a). Easy riders, joint production, and public goods. The Economic Journal, 94, 580–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Engqvist, L. (2001). Final EU statement at UNGASS on HIV/AIDS. Statement by Mr. Lars Engqvist, Swedish Minister for Health and Social Affairs. UN Website: http://www.un.int/sweden/pages/eu/state_eu/stjune25.htm.
  18. Evans, D. (2004). Communicable diseases: Perspective paper. In B. Lomborg (Ed.), Global crisis, global solutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fleming, D., & Wasserheit, J. (1999). From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: The contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 75, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamers, F., et al. (2006). HIV/AIDS in Europe: Trends and EU-wide priorities. Eurosurveillance Weekly Release, 11, 3083.Google Scholar
  21. Hirshleifer, J. (1983). From weakest-link to best-shot: The voluntary provision ofpublic goods. Public Choice, 41, 371–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirshleifer, J. (1985). From weakest-link to best-shot: Correction. Public Choice, 46, 221–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacquet, P., & Marniesse, S. (2006). Financing global public goods: Issues and prospects. In Secretariat of the International Task Force on Global Public Goods (Ed.), Expert paper series seven: Cross-cutting issues. Stockholm: International Task Force on Global Public Goods.Google Scholar
  24. Jamison, D., Frenk, J., & Kaul, F. (1998). International collective action in health: Objectives, functions, and rationale. Lancet, 351, 514–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanbur, R., Sandler, T., & Morrison, K. (1999). The future of development assistance: Common pools and international public goods. (Essay No. 25). Washington DC: Overseas Development Council.Google Scholar
  26. Kaul, I., & Faust, M. (2001). Global public goods and health: Taking the agenda forward. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 79, 869–874.Google Scholar
  27. Kaul, I., Grunberg, I., & Stern, M. (1999). Global Public Goods: International co-operation in the 21st century. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kremer, M. (1998). AIDS: The economic rationale for public intervention. In M. Ainsworth, L. Fransen, & M. Over (Eds.), Confronting AIDS: Evidence from the developing world. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  29. Lamptey, P., Zeitz, P., & Larivee, C. (2001). Strategies for an expanded and comprehensive response (ECR) to a national HIV/AIDS epidemic: A handbook for designing and implementing HIV/AIDS programs. Arlington, VA: FHI.Google Scholar
  30. Loewenson, R., & Whiteside, A. (2002). HIV/AIDS: Implications for poverty reduction (UNDP policy paper). New York.Google Scholar
  31. Marx, J. (1982). New disease baffle medical community. Science, 13, 618–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mathers, C., et al. (2005). Uncertainty and data availability for the global burden of disease estimates 2000–2002. Evidence and information for Policy (Working Paper). Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  33. Mills, A. (2001). Technology and science as global public goods: Tackling priority diseases of poor countries. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  34. Mills, A., & Shillcutt, S. (2004). Communicable diseases. In B. Lomborg (Ed.), Global crisis, global solutions. Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Ministry of Health China. (2006). 2005 update on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and response in China. Beijing: Ministry of Health, UNAIDS and WHO.Google Scholar
  36. Murray, C. (1996). Rethinking DALYs. In C. Murray & A. Lopez (Eds.), The global burden of disease. Havard: Havard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Murray, C., & Lopez, A. (1996). Global Burden of Disease. A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Musgrave, R. A., Musgrave, P. B., & Kullmer, L. (1994). Die öffentlichen Finanzen in Theorie und Praxis (6th ed.). Tübingen: J.C.B Mohr Verlag.Google Scholar
  39. Nicoll, A., & Godfrey-Faussett, P. (1999). HIV and tuberculosis in the Commonwealth. BMJ, 319, 1086.Google Scholar
  40. Oberender, P., & Fleckenstein, J. (2004). HIV/AIDS-PrŠvention als globale Herausforderung: Eine institutionenškonomische Analyse (discussion paper 01-04). Bayreuth.Google Scholar
  41. Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator. (2007). Country profile – Uganda. Washington DC: PEPFAR.Google Scholar
  42. Pallangyo, K. J. (2001). Clinical features of tuberculosis among adults in Sub-saharan Africa in the 21st century. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 33, 488–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Population Reference Bureau. (2007a). 2007 World population data sheet. Washington DC: Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
  44. Population Reference Bureau. (2007b). World population highlights. Key findings from PRB´s 2007. World population data sheet. Population Bulletin, 62, 1–12.Google Scholar
  45. Rojanapithayakorn, W., & Hanenberg, R. (1996). The 100% condom program in Thailand. AIDS, 10, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rotchford, K., et al. (2000). Effect of coinfection with STDs and of STD treatment on HIV shedding in genital-tract secretions: Systematic review and data synthesis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 27, 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Samuelson, P. (1954). The pure theory of public expenditure. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 36, 387–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sandler, T. (1978). Interregional and intergenerational spillover awareness. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 25, 273–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sandler, T. (1997). Global Challenges: An approach to environmental, political, and economic problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Sandler, T. (2001b). Financing international public goods. In M. Ferroni & A. Mody (Eds.), International public goods: Incentives, measurement, and financing. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sandler, T. (2004). Regional public goods: Demand and institutions. In A. Estevadeordal, B. Frantz, & T. R. Nguyen (Eds.), Regional public goods. From theory to practise. Washington, DC: IDB.Google Scholar
  52. Sandler, T., & Arce, D. (2002). A conceptual framework for understanding global and transnational public goods for health. Fiscal Studies, 23, 195–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sandler, T., & Sargent, K. (1995). Management of transnational commons: Coordination, publicness, and treaty formation. Land Economics, 71, 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sinka, K., et al. (2003). Impact of HIV epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa on the pattern of HIV in the UK. AIDS, 17, 1683–1690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, R., & MacKellar, L. (2007). Global public goods and the global health agenda: Problems, priorities and potential. Globalization and Health, 3, 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith, R., et al. (2003). Global public goods for health. Health economic and public health perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Smith, R., et al. (2004). Communicable disease control: A ‘global public good’ perspective. Health Policy and Planning, 19, 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stillwaggon, E. (2006a). AIDS and the ecology of poverty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Teixeira, L. (2006). Evaluation of the United Nations Declaration on HIV/AIDS resource targets. Rev Saœde Pœblica, 40, 52–59.Google Scholar
  60. The Economist (2005, July 30). AIDS – No carnival.Google Scholar
  61. Uganda AIDS Commission. (2003). The HIV/AIDS epidemic: Prevalence and impact, June 2003. Kampala: Uganda AIDS Commission.Google Scholar
  62. Wasserheit, J. (1992). Epidemiological synergy. Interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 19, 61–77.Google Scholar
  63. Woodward, D., & Smith, R. (2003). Global public goods and health: Concepts and issues. In R. Smith et al. (Eds.), Global public goods for health. New York: Health economic and public health perspectives. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Working group 5 of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. (2002). Improving health outcomes of the poor. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  65. World Bank. (1993). World Development Report 1993: Investing in health. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. World Bank. (2000). Poverty reduction and global public goods: Issues for the World Bank in supporting global collective action. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  67. Zhu, T., et al. (1998). An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic. Nature, 391, 594–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vienna University of Economics and Business Institute for Social PolicyWienAustria

Personalised recommendations