In the main text, we found that, in the Netherlands, compared with the other countries, especially the multiplier values of the services sectors in town are relatively high. Identified key-sectors were the hotel and catering sector, as well as public administration. In this section, we will have a closer look at the selected Dutch towns to see whether this picture holds for all towns or whether there are exceptions.
shows the SAM output multipliers for aggregated sectors agriculture, manufacturing, and services, as well as for sectors with the highest multiplier values.
Output multipliers of aggregated sectors, as well as for the sectors with the highest multiplier values for the six Dutch towns
From Table 5.12 it appears that, in all towns, the service multiplier is higher than the manufacturing multiplier. As well as in Schagen, high service multipliers are also found in Nunspeet and Bolsward. Both these towns have a high level of employment in the tourism sector, which explains that particularly the town multipliers related to hotels and catering activities have high values (2.27 for Bolsward and 2.42 for Nunspeet). In Schagen and Bolsward, the town manufacturing multipliers are also relatively high, partly because of a strong effect in the construction sector. This manufacturing sector has particularly strong local linkages when it is located in the town; the multipliers are generally much lower in the hinterland. In Oudewater, the town manufacturing multipliers are relatively low, as are the average town services multipliers. Only the retail service is related to a high value: 2.26.
When focusing on the hinterland, we see that the two towns with a relatively large share of employment in the agricultural sector, Dalfsen and Schagen, have relatively high agricultural multiplier values. However, the highest agricultural multiplier is found in Gemert. In this town, particularly mixed and intensive farming is important. In (almost) all towns, the average agricultural multiplier is higher than the average hinterland manufacturing multiplier. Again, especially in Oudewater this value is relatively low. This also holds for the services sector. On average, the hinterland multipliers of Oudewater are the lowest of those for the six towns. This can be explained by the location of Oudewater in relation to the bigger cities of Woerden and Gouda and the large city of Utrecht.
When we focus on the income multipliers (see Table 5.13
), it appears that the differences between the towns are relatively small. However, on average, the highest multipliers appear in Schagen, both in town and hinterland, and in Oudewater, but only in town.
Income multipliers for the six Dutch towns
During the analysis, we also derived employment multipliers. These multipliers indicate the additional employment generated in the regional employment as a result of an initial employment increase in a particular sector. The employment multipliers are derived from a combination of output multipliers and direct employment coefficients (employment per sector output) (see Mayfield et al. 2005, p. 57). We show these multipliers on this town level, instead of on the national level, in the main text because on a town level they can be better interpreted.
shows the employment multipliers for each town of those sectors with high multiplier values. Both in town and hinterland, on average, the food and drinks sector has the highest employment multiplier. This holds particularly for Bolsward, where a few large liqueur producers are located. The service sectors have lower multipliers, although the banking sector in Nunspeet has a multiplier of 1.66. In this town, apart from the normal banking facilities, there is also a regional office.
Employment multipliers for key employment sectors
In the hinterland, a clear distinction between the two towns in more urbanized areas, Oudewater and Gemert, and the other towns appears when focusing on the Dairy and intensive sector. In Oudewater and Gemert, this multiplier is much lower.