Methodology, Research Process, and Computer Programs

  • Tanachart Raoprasert
  • Sardar M. N. Islam
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


This chapter provides an overview of the methodological approach used to address the research questions proposed in Chap. 1, and to empirically examine the model developed in Sect. 3.1. Nine subsections include: Sect. 4.1 introducing the chapter objectives and Sect. 4.2 which outlines the research process. Section 4.3 discusses literature on the motivational factors adopted in Chap. 2. Section 4.4 overviews the quantitative approach of questionnaires used in the collection of data. Section 4.5 discusses the scale development process used to ensure measures of good psychometric properties, and development of the constructs. Section 4.5 also discusses translation and back-translation of the questionnaires in English, Thai and Japanese. Pre-testing of the draft survey which was checked by management academics and professionals to ensure content validity are also discussed in this section, as well as reliability testing to ensure the quality of measures. Section 4.6 discusses the population, sampling method and procedures used in the book. It overviews the screening and cleaning of data prior to analysis, and includes checking for completeness of responses, frequencies of items and underlying assumptions required as a pre-requisite for further multivariate analysis. Section 4.7 deals with the statistical procedures used to examine the research questions and test the proposed model, using structural equation modeling (SEM) and descriptive statistics to explore the hypotheses. Section 4.8 discusses the ethical issues in this research, and Sect. 4.9 summarizes the materials discussed in Chap. 4.


Structural Equation Modeling Human Resource Manager Composite Variable Japanese Management Motivational Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abolghasemi M, McCormick J, Conners R (1999) The importance of department heads in the development of teacher support for school vision. Int J Edu Manag 13(2):80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham M, Crawford J, Fisher T (1999a) Key factors predicting effectiveness of cultural change and improved productivity in implementing total quality management. Int J Qual Reliab Manag 16(2):112–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abraham M, Sullivan T, Griffin D (2002) Implementing NAGPRA: the effective management of legislated change in museums. Manag Decis 40(1):35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahire S, Golhar D, Waller M (1996) Development and validation of TQM implementation constructs. Decis Sci 27(1):23–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amaratunga D, Baldry D, Sashar M, Newton R (2002) Quantitative and qualitative research in the built environment: application of ‘mixed’ research approach. Work Stud 51(1):17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amemiya Y, Anderson TW (1990) Asymptotic chi-square test for a large class of factor analysis models. Ann Stat 18(3):1453–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson JG, Gerbing DW (1988) Structural equation modelling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol Bull 107(1):238–246Google Scholar
  8. Anderson AB, Basilevsky A, Hum DPJ (1983) Measurement: theory and techniques. In: Rossi PH, Wright JD, Anderson AB (eds) Handbook of survey research. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Arbuckle JL, Wothke W (1999) AMOS 4.0 user’s Guide. Small Waters Corp, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  10. Azzalini A (2005) The skew-normal distribution and related multivariate families. Board Found Scand J Stat 32(2):159–188Google Scholar
  11. Babbie ER (2000) The practices of social research. Wadsworth Thomson Learning, Belmont, CAGoogle Scholar
  12. Bagozzi R (1983) Issues in the application of covariance structure analysis: a further comment. J Consum Res 9(1):449–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bailey KD (1994) Methods of social research. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Birnbaum R (1984) The effects of a neutral third party on academic bargaining relationships and campus climate. J High Educ 55(6):719–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blalock HM (1979) The presidential address: measurement and conceptualization problems: the major obstacle to integrating theory and research. Am Sociol Rev 44(6):881–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bodgan RC, Biklen SK (1998) Qualitative research in education, 3rd edn. Allyn&Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  17. Bollen KA, Stine RA (1993) Bootstrapping goodness-of-fit measures in structural equation modelling. In: Bollen KA, Long JS (eds) Testing structural equation models. Sage, Newbury Park, CAGoogle Scholar
  18. Brislin RW (1986) The wording and translation of research instruments. In: Lonner WJ, Berry JW (eds) Field methods in cross-cultural research. Sage, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  19. Burns RB (2000) Introduction to research methods, 4th edn. Pearson Education, Frenchs ForestGoogle Scholar
  20. Byrne BM (2001) Structural equation modelling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  21. Campbell D, Fiske D (1959) Convergent and discriminant validity by the multitrait–multimethod matrix. Psychol Bull 56:81–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cavana R, Delahaye B, Sekaran U (2001) Applied business research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Wiley, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  23. Cherry JAL (2000) A research primer for the helping professions: methods, statistics, and writing. Wadsworth, Brooks/Cole, CTGoogle Scholar
  24. Chui HS, Sharpe FG, McCormick J (1996) Vision and leadership of principals in Hong Kong. J Edu Admin 34(3):30–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Churchill G (1979) A paradigm for developing between measures of marketing constructs. J Market Res 16(2):64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Churchill GA (1995) Marketing research methodological foundation, 6th edn. The Dryden Press, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  27. Clarke A (1999) Evaluation research: an introduction to principles, methods and practice. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  28. Coakes SJ, Steed LG (1997) SPSS analysis without anguish. Wiley, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  29. Collis J, Hussey R (2003) Business research: a practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students, 2nd edn. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooper DR, Emory CW (1995) Business research methods. Erwin, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Cooper DR, Schindler PS (1998) Business research method. McGraw Hill, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  32. Coorley WW (1978) Explanatory observation studies. Educ Res October:9–15Google Scholar
  33. Creawell JW (1994) Research design; qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage, Thousands OaksGoogle Scholar
  34. Danaher PJ, Haddrell V (1996) A comparison of question scales used for measuring customer satisfaction. Int J Ser Ind Manag 7(2):235–260Google Scholar
  35. De Vaus DA (2002) Surveys in social research. Allen & Unwin, St. Leonard, NSWGoogle Scholar
  36. Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (2005) The SAGE handbook of qualitative research, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  37. DeVellis RF (2003) Scale development: theory and applications, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  38. Devlin SJ, Dong HK, Brown M (1993) Selecting a scale for measuring quality. Market Res 5(3):12–17Google Scholar
  39. Diaconis P, Efron B (1983) Computer-intensive methods in statistics. Sci Am 248(5):116–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gill R, Wong A (1998) The cross-cultural transfer of management practices: the case of Japanese human resource management practice in Singapore. Int J Hum Res Manag 9(1):116–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gliem JA, Gliem PR (2003) Calculating interpreting, and reporting cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for Likert-type scales. Paper presented to Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing & Community EducationGoogle Scholar
  42. Hair JE, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL (2003) Multivariate data analysis, 6th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  43. Hambleton R (1993) Translating achievement tests for use in cross-national studies. Eur J Psychol Assess 19(1):57–68Google Scholar
  44. Hayduk L (1987) Structural equation modelling with LISREL: essentials and advances. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  45. Holmes-Smith P (2000) Introduction to structural equation modelling using AMOS 4.0: course notes. SREAMS, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  46. Holmes-Smith P, Rowe KJ (1994) The development and use of congeneric measurement models in school effectiveness research: improving reliability and validity of composite and latent variables for fitting multilevel and structural equation models. Paper presented to International Conference for School Effectiveness and Improvement, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  47. Houghton JD, Bonham TW, Neck CP, Singh K (2004) The relationship between self-leadership and personality: a comparison of hierarchical factor structures. J Manag Psychol 19(4):427–441Google Scholar
  48. Japanese Chamber of Commerce B (2006) List of members. L.K.D. Co., Ltd, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  49. Joreskog K (1993) Testing structural equation models. In: Bollen KA, Long JS (eds) Testing structural equation models. Sage, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  50. Joreskog KG, Wold H (1982) Systems under indirect observation. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  51. Kinnear TC, Taylor JR (1996) Marketing research: an applied approach, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Kline RB (2005) Principles and practice of structural equation modelling. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Kripanont N (2007) Examining a technology acceptance model of internet usage by academics within Thai Business Schools. PhD thesis, Victoria UniversityGoogle Scholar
  54. Kumer R (2005) Research methodology: a step by step for beginners, 2nd edn. Pearson Education Australia, NSWGoogle Scholar
  55. Larsson R (1993) Case study methodology: quantitative analysis of patterns across case studies. Acad Manag J 36(6):1515–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lin H-F (2007) Effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on employee knowledge sharing intentions. J Inform Sci 33(2):135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lok P, Crawford J (2000) The application of a diagnostic model and surveys in organizational development. J Manag Psychol 15(2):108–125Google Scholar
  58. Lok P, Hung RY, Walsh P, Wang P, Crawford J (2005) An integrative framework for measuring the extent to which organizational variables influence the success of process improvement programs. J Manag Stud 42(7):0022–2380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Luthans F, Avolio BJ, Avey JB, Norman SM (2007) Positive psychological capital: measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Pers Psychol 60(3):541–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Malhotra NK (2003) Marketing research: an applied orientation. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  61. Maruyama GM (1998) Basics of structural equation modelling. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  62. Mason RD, Lind DA, Marchal WG (1999) Statistical techniques in business and economics, 10th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. McClelland S (1994) Training needs assessment data-gathering methods: part one, survey questionnaire. J Eur Ind Train 18(1):22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McDonald RP, Ringo H (2002) Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychol Meth 7(1):64–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mullen M (1995) Diagnosing measurement equivalence in cross-national research. J Int Bus Stud 26(3):573–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Neuman WL (2006) Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches, 6th edn. Pearson/Allyn&Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  67. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH (1994) Psychometric theory. McGraw-Hill Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Pattant J (2005) SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS, 2nd edn. Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  69. Peter J (1981) Construct validity: a review of basic issues and marketing practices. J Market Res 18:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Polonsky MJ, Waller DS (2005) Designing and managing a research project: a business student’s guide. Sage Publication, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  71. Preziosi R (1980) Organizational diagnosis questionnaire, the 1980 annual handbook for group facilitators. University Associates, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  72. Reis HT, Judd CM (2000) Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Reisinger Y, Turner L (2000) Structural equation modelling with Lisrel: application in tourism. Monash UniversityGoogle Scholar
  74. Reynolds N, Diamantopoulos A, Schelglmilch B (1993) Pre-testing in questionnaire design: a review of the literature and suggestions for further research. J Market Res Soc 35(2):171–182Google Scholar
  75. Roscoe JT (1975) Fundamental research statistics for the behavioural sciences, 2nd edn. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Saunders ML, Lewis P, Thornhill A (2003) Research methods for business students, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  77. Schumaker RE, Lomax RG (1996) A beginner’s guide to structural equation modelling. Elbraum Associates, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  78. Sekaran U (2003) Research methods for business: a skill building approach. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Shammout A (2008) ‘Evaluating an extended relationship marketing model for Arab guests of five-star hotels.’ PhD thesis, Victoria UniversityGoogle Scholar
  80. Sharma S (1996) Applied multivariate techniques. Wiley, NJGoogle Scholar
  81. Shaughnessy J, Zechmeister EB (1997) Research methods in psychology, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Silverman D (2006) Interpreting qualitative data: methods for analyzing talk, text and interaction, 3rd edn. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. Sopector PE (1992) Summated rating scale construction: an introduction. Sage, Inc, Newbury Park, CAGoogle Scholar
  84. Tanachnick BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using multivariate statustics, 5th edn. Pearson/Allyn&Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  85. Ticehurst G, Veal A (2000) Business research methods: a managerial approach. Pearson Education Australia, NWSGoogle Scholar
  86. Trochim WMK (2006) Descriptive statistics. The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 11/3/2008Google Scholar
  87. Tull DS, Hawkins DI (1990) Marketing research: measurement and method: a text with case, 5th edn. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Turner RL (2007) ‘The development of a two-stage regression model describing the IS graduate.’ PhD thesis, Monash UniversityGoogle Scholar
  89. Ullman JB (2001) Structural equation modelling. In: Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (eds) Using multivariate statistics, 4th edn. Allyn and Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  90. Veal AJ (2006) Research methods for leisure and tourism, 3rd edn. Financial Times Prentice Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Visser PS, Krosnick JA, Lavrakas PJ (2000) Survey research. In: Reis HT, Judd CM (eds) Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Yamane T (1973) Statistics: an introductory analysis, 3rd edn. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Yin RK (1994) Case study research: design and methods. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  94. Zeidan S (2006) The relationship between high commitment management and employee attitudes and behaviours: the role of psychological contract fulfilment and justice. PhD thesis, Victoria UniversityGoogle Scholar
  95. Zikmund WG (2003) Business research methods, 7th edn. Thomson, Cincinnati, OHGoogle Scholar
  96. Zineldin M, Jonsson P (2000) An examination of the main factors affecting trust/commitment in supplier-dealer relationships: an empirical study of the Swedish wood industry. TQM Mag 12(4):245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Accountancy and ManagementMahasarakham UniversityMahasarakhamThailand
  2. 2.Victoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations