Paradox Theory as a Lens of Theorising for Sustainable HRM

Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


In Chap.  2, the notion of sustainability has been opened up for HRM and possible links to HRM theory were identified. In Chap.  3, Strategic HRM literature has been reviewed from a sustainability perspective to identify “blind spots” in the theory development of the HRM field (see Sect. 3.5). Although Chaps. 2 and 3 serve as basis for developing a conceptual model for a sustainability approach to HRM, this chapter explores paradox theory as a lens of theorising for Sustainable HRM. The term “paradox theory” refers to organisational literature on paradoxical phenomena – i.e. for this work the literature on paradoxes, dualities, and dilemmas. Although “paradox theory” is not a theory as, for instance, the RBV, the theoretical elements presented in this chapter constitute a part of interim struggles of organisation and HRM scholars to apply paradox and related concepts for theory development (see Sect. 1.5.2). The literature on paradoxes, dualities, and dilemmas is regarded as one school of thought. Although there are subtle differences between these concepts, several similar elements can be identified which justify studying them together and integrating them into one lens.


Coping Strategy Theory Development Blind Spot Social Dilemma Paradoxical Phenomenon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aldrich HE, Herker D (1977) Boundary spanning roles and organization structure. Acad Manage Rev 2(2):217–230Google Scholar
  2. Ansoff IH (1965) Corporate strategy. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Argyris C (1988) Crafting a theory of practice: the case of organizational paradoxes. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation – toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp 255–278Google Scholar
  4. Argyris C, Schön DA (1978) Organizational learning: a theory of action perspective. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacharach SB (1989) Organizational theories: some criteria for evaluation. Acad Manage Rev 14(4):496–515Google Scholar
  6. Bansal P (2005) Evolving sustainably: longitudinal study of corporate sustainable development. Strateg Manage J 26(3):197–218Google Scholar
  7. Barley SR, Kunda G (1992) Design and devotion: surges of rational and normative ideologies of control in managerial discourse. Adm Sci Q 37:363–399Google Scholar
  8. Bartunek JM (1988) The dynamics of personal and organizational reframing. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp 137–162Google Scholar
  9. Berlinger LR, Sitkin SB (1990) Book review. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, 1988. Adm Sci Q 35(4):740–743Google Scholar
  10. Blyton P, Turnbull P (1994) The dynamics of employee relations. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Bortz J, Döring N (1995) Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation: Für Sozialwissenschaftler, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  12. Brewster C (2002) Human resource practices in multinational companies. In: Martin JG, Karen LN (eds) The Blackwell handbook of cross-cultural management. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 126–141Google Scholar
  13. Brewster C, Wood G, Brookes M (2006) Similarity, isomorphism or duality?: recent survey evidence on the HRM policies of MNCs. Paper presented at the EURAM Conference, 16–20 May 2006, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  14. Buller PF, McEvoy GM (1999) Creating and sustaining ethical capability in the multi-national corporation. J World Bus 34(4):326–343Google Scholar
  15. Cabrera Á, Cabrera EF (2002) Knowledge-sharing dilemmas. Organ Stud 23(5):687–710Google Scholar
  16. Cameron KS (1986) Effectiveness as paradox: consensus and conflict in conceptions of organizational effectiveness. Manage Sci 32(5):539–553Google Scholar
  17. Cameron KS, Quinn RE (1988) Organizational paradox and transformation. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  18. Cameron KS, Quinn RE (1999) Diagnosing and changing organizational culture. Addson-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  19. Chandler AD Jr (1962) Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  20. Child J, McGrath R (2001) Organizations unfettered: organizational form in an information-intensive economy. Acad Manage J 44(6):1135–1148Google Scholar
  21. Chmielewicz K (1979) Forschungskonzeptionen der Wirtschaftswissenschaft, 2nd edn. Schäffer-Poeschel, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  22. Colville ID, Waterman RH, Weick KE (1999) Organizing and the search for excellence: making sense of the times in theory and practice. Organ Articles 6(1):129–148Google Scholar
  23. Czarniawska B (1997) Narrating the organization: dramas of institutional identity. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  24. Denison DR, Hooijberg R, Quinn RE (1995) Paradox and performance: toward a theory of behavioral complexity in managerial leadership. Organ Sci 6(5):524–540Google Scholar
  25. DiMaggio PJ (1995) Comments on “what theory is not”. Adm Sci Q 40(3):391–397Google Scholar
  26. Dörner D (1994) Heuristik der Theorienbildung. In: Herrmann T, Tack W (eds) Methodologische Grundlagen der Psychologie. Hogrefe, Göttingen, pp 343–388Google Scholar
  27. Dowling PJ, Festing M, Engle AD (2008) International human resource management: managing people in a multinational context, 5th edn. Thomson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Drumm HJ (2000) Personalwirtschaft, 4th edn. Springer, TokioGoogle Scholar
  29. Dubin R (1976) Theory building in applied areas. In: Dunnette MD (ed) Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Rand McNally, Chicago, pp 17–39Google Scholar
  30. Ehnert I (2006a) Sustainability issues in human resource management: linkages, theoretical approaches, and outlines for an emerging field. Paper presented at 21st EIASM Workshop on SHRM, 30–31 March 2006, BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  31. Ehnert I (2007a) Representations of sustainability in HRM: a conceptual and website analysis. Paper presented at 22nd Workshop on Strategic HRM, 19–20 April 2007, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  32. Ehnert I, Dorenbosch L (2007) Analysing strategic HRM from a paradox/duality lens: towards a framework for sustainable HRM. In: Dutch HRM Network Conference, 9–10 November 2007, Tilburg, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  33. Ehnert I, Arndt L, Müller-Christ G (2006) A sustainable management framework of dilemmas and boundaries for autonomous cooperating processes in transport logistics. Int J Environ Sus Dev 5(1):355–371Google Scholar
  34. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Acad Manage Rev 14(4): 532–550Google Scholar
  35. Eisenhardt KM (2000) Introduction to special topic forum. Paradox, spirals, ambivalence: the new language of change and pluralism. Acad Manage Rev 25(4):703–705Google Scholar
  36. Erickson GW, Fossa JA (1998) Dictionary of paradox. University Press of America, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  37. Evans PAL (1991) Duality theory: new directions for human resource and organizational management. In: Lattmann C, Staffelbach B (eds) Die Personalfunktion der Unternehmung im Spannungsfeld von Humanität und wirtschaftlicher Rationalität. Physica, Heidelberg, pp 97–125Google Scholar
  38. Evans PAL (1999) HRM on the edge: a duality perspective. Organization 6(2):325–338Google Scholar
  39. Evans P, Doz Y (1989) Human resource management in international firms: change, globalization, innovation, 3nd edn. Macmillan, HoundmillsGoogle Scholar
  40. Evans P, Doz Y (1991) The dualistic organization. In: Evans P, Doz Y, Laurent A (eds) Human resource management in international firms: change, globalization, innovation, 3rd edn. Macmillan, Houndmills, pp 219–242Google Scholar
  41. Evans P, Doz Y (1992) Dualities: a paradigm for human resource and organizational development in complex multinationals. In: Pucik V, Tichy NM, Burnett CK (eds) Creating and leading the competitive organization. Wiley, New York, pp 219–242Google Scholar
  42. Evans P, Génadry N (1999) A duality-based prospective for strategic human resource management. In: Wright PM, Dyer LD, Boudreau JW, Milkovich GT (eds) Research in personnel and human resoure management, supplement 4. JAI, Greenwich, CT, pp 367–395Google Scholar
  43. Evans P, Lorange P (1991) The two logics behind human resource management. In: Evans P, Doz Y, Laurent A (eds) Human résource mangement in international firms. Macmillan, London, pp 144–161Google Scholar
  44. Evans P, Doz Y, Laurent A (1991) Human resource management in international firms: change, globalization, innovation. Macmillan, HoundmillsGoogle Scholar
  45. Evans PAL, Pucik V, Barsoux J-L (2002) The global challenge: frameworks for international human resource management. McGraw-Hill Irwin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  46. Feldman DC (2004a) The devil is in the details: converting good research into publishable articles. J Manage 30(1):1–6Google Scholar
  47. Feldman DC (2004b) What are we talking about when we talk about theory? J Manage 30(5): 565–567Google Scholar
  48. Filipcova B, Filipec J (1986) Society and concepts of time. Int Soc Sci J 107:19–32Google Scholar
  49. Fiol C (2002) Marlene capitalizing on paradox: the role of language in transforming organizational identities. Organ Sci 13(6):653–666Google Scholar
  50. Fontin M (1997) Das Management von Dilemmata: Erschließung neuer strategischer und organisationaler Potentiale. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  51. Ford JD, Backhoff RH (1988) Organizational change in and out of dualities and paradox. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp 81–122Google Scholar
  52. Gannon MJ (1990) Book review. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, 1988. Acad Manage Exec 4(1):96–97Google Scholar
  53. Gebert D, Boerner S (1999) The open and the closed corporation as conflicting forms of organization. J Appl Behav Sci 35(3):341–359Google Scholar
  54. Ghoshal S (2005) Bad management theories are destroying good management practices. Acad Manage Learn Educ 4(1):75–91Google Scholar
  55. Gioia DA, Pitre E (1990) Multiparadigm perspectives on theory building. Acad Manage Rev 15(4):584–602Google Scholar
  56. Glaser BG, Strauss AL (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Aldine, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  57. Goffman E (1974) Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of the experience. Harper Colophon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Goold M, Campbell A (1987) Strategies and styles: the role of the centre in managing diversified corporations. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Gresov C, Drazin R (1997) Equifinality: functional equivalence in organization design. Acad Manage Rev 22(2):403–428Google Scholar
  60. Grimm R (1999) Die Handhabung von Widersprüchen im Strategischen Management: Eine evolutions- und entwicklungsorientierte Perspektive. Peter Lang, Frankfurt/MainGoogle Scholar
  61. Grossman W, Schoenfeldt LF (2001) Resolving ethical dilemmas through international human resource management: a transaction cost economics perspective. Hum Resou Manage Rev 11:55–72Google Scholar
  62. Hampden-Turner C (1990) Charting the corporate mind: graphic solutions to business conflicts. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Hampden-Turner CM, Trompenaars F (2000) Building cross-cultural competence: how to create wealth from conflicting values. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  64. Handy CB (1994) The age of paradox. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  65. Hardin G (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162(13):1243–1248Google Scholar
  66. Harter LM, Krone KJ (2001) The boundary-spanning role of a cooperative support organization: managing the paradox of stability and change in non-traditional organizations. J App Commun Res 29(3):248–277Google Scholar
  67. Hatch MJ, Ehrlich SB (1993) Spontaneous humour as an indicator of paradox and ambiguity in organizations. Organ Stud 14(4):505–526Google Scholar
  68. Hofstede G (2001) Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  69. Hoskisson RE, Hitt MA, Wan WP, Yiu D (1999) Theory and research in strategic management: swings of a pendulum. J Manage 25(3):417–456Google Scholar
  70. Hülsmann M (2003) Management im Orientierungsdilemma: Unternehmen zwischen Effizienz und Nachhaltigkeit, 1st edn. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  71. Johnston S, Selsky JW (2006) Duality and paradox: trust and duplicity in Japanese business practice. Organ Stud 27(2):183–205Google Scholar
  72. Klimecki R, Gmür M (2001) Personalmanagement: Strategien, Erfolgsbeiträge, Entwicklungsperspektiven, 2nd edn. Lucius und Lucius, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  73. Klimecki R, Remer A (1997) Personal als Strategie: Mit flexiblen und lernbereiten Human-Ressourcen Kernkompetenzen aufbauen. Luchterhand, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  74. Klimoski R (1991) Theory presentation in human resource management. Hum Resou Manage Rev 1(4):253–271Google Scholar
  75. Kollock P (1998) Social Dilemmas: The Anatomy of Cooperation. Ann Rev Sociol 22:183–205Google Scholar
  76. Kubicek H, Thom N (1976) Umsystem, betriebliches. In: Grochla E, Wittmann W (eds) Handwörterbuch der Betriebswirtschaft, 4th edn. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp 3977–4017Google Scholar
  77. Lado AA, Boyd NG, Wright P, Kroll M (2006) Paradox and theorizing within the resourced-based view. Acad Manage Rev 31(1):115–131Google Scholar
  78. Ladyman J (2002) Understanding philosophy of science. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. Lazarus RS (1980) The stress and coping paradigm. In: Eisdorfer C, Cohen D, Kleinman A, Maxim P (eds) Theoretical bases for psychopathology. Spectrum, New York, pp 177–214Google Scholar
  80. Lazarus RS, Launier R (1978) Stress-related transactions between person and environment. In: Pervin LA, Lewis M (eds) Perspectives in interactional psychology. Plenum, New York, pp 287–327Google Scholar
  81. Leana CR, Barry B (2000) Stability and change as simultaneous experiences in organizational life. Acad Manage Rev 25(4):753–759Google Scholar
  82. Leavitt H (1965) Applied organizational change in industry: structural, technological and humanistic approaches. In: March J (ed) Handbook of organization. Rand McNally, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  83. Legge K (1995) Human resource management: rhetorics and realities. Palgrave, HoundmillsGoogle Scholar
  84. Legge K (2005) Human resource management: rhetorics and realities, Anniversary edn. Palgrave MacMillan, HampshireGoogle Scholar
  85. Lengnick-Hall CA, Beck TE (2005) Adaptive fit versus robust transformation: how organizations respond to environmental change. J Manage 31(5):738–757Google Scholar
  86. Lepak D, Snell SA (1998) Virtual HR: strategic human resource management in the 21st century. Hum Resou Manage Rev 8(3):215–234Google Scholar
  87. Lewin K (1947) Frontiers in group dynamics. Hum Relat 1:2–38Google Scholar
  88. Lewis MW (2000) Exploring paradox: toward a more comprehensive guide. Acad Manage Rev 25(4):760–776Google Scholar
  89. Lewis MW, Grimes AJ (1999) Metatriangulation: building theory from multiple paradigms. Acad Manage Rev 24(4):672–690Google Scholar
  90. Lewis MW, Kelemen ML (2002) Multiparadigm inquiry: exploring organizational pluralism and paradox. Hum Relat 55(2):251–27Google Scholar
  91. Luhmann N (1964) Funktionen und folgen formaler organisationen, 5th edn. Duncker und Humblot, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  92. Luhmann N (1993) Die Paradoxie des Entscheidens. Zeitschrift für Verwaltungslehre, Verwaltungsrecht und Verwaltungspolitik 84(3):287–310Google Scholar
  93. Luhmann N (2005) The paradox of decision making. In: Seidl D, Becker KH (eds) Niklas Luhmann and organization studies. Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen, pp 85–142Google Scholar
  94. Lynham SA (2000) Theory building in the human resource development profession. Hum Resour Dev Q 11(2):159–178Google Scholar
  95. Lynn ML (2005) Organizational buffering: managing boundaries and cores. Organ Stud 26(1):37–61Google Scholar
  96. Matiaske W (2004) Personalforschung. In: Gaugler E, Oechsler WA, Weber W (eds) Handwörterbuch des Personalwesens, 3rd edn. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp 1521–1534Google Scholar
  97. Maturana HR, Varela FJ (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition: the realization of living. Reidel, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  98. McKinley W, Scherer AG (2000) Some unanticipated consequences of organizational restructuring. Acad Manage Rev 25(4):735–752Google Scholar
  99. McMahan GC, Virick M, Wright PM (1999) Alternative theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management revisited: progress, problems, and prospects. In: Wright PM, Dyer LD, Boudreau JW, Milkovich GT (eds) Research in personnel and human resource management, supplement 4. JAI, Greenwich, CT, pp 99–122Google Scholar
  100. Miller D (1990) The Icarus paradox: how exceptional companies bring about their own downfall. Harper Collins, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  101. Mintzberg H (1973) The nature of managerial work. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Moberg DJ (2006) Ethics blind spots in organizations: how systematic errors in person perception undermine moral agency. Organ Stud 27(3):413–428Google Scholar
  103. Möllering G (2005) The trust/control duality: an integrative perspective on positive expectations of others. Int Sociol 20(3):283–305Google Scholar
  104. Müller-Christ G (2007) Formen der Bewältigung von Widersprüchen: Die Rechtfertigung von Trade-offs als Kernproblem. In: Müller-Christ G, Arndt L, Ehnert I (eds) Nachhaltigkeit und Widersprüche: Eine Managementperspektive. LIT, Hamburg, pp 127–177Google Scholar
  105. Müller-Christ G, Weßling G (2007) Widerspruchsbewältigung, Ambivalenz- und Ambiguitätstoleranz: Eine modellhafte Verknüpfung. In: Müller-Christ G, Arndt L, Ehnert I (eds) Nachhaltigkeit und Widersprüche: Eine Managementperspektive. LIT, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  106. Müller-Christ G, Arndt L, Ehnert I (eds) (2007) Nachhaltigkeit und Widersprüche: Eine Managementperspektive. LIT, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  107. Nelson RE (2001) On the shape of verbal networks in organizations. Organ Stud 22(5):797–823Google Scholar
  108. Neuberger O (1992) Widersprüche in Ordnung. In: Königswieser R, Lutz C (eds) Das systemisch-evolutionäre Management: Der neue Horizont für Unternehmer, 2nd edn. Orac, Wien, pp 146–167Google Scholar
  109. Neuberger O (1995) Führungsdilemmata. In: Kieser A, Reber G, Wunderer R (eds) Handwörterbuch der Führung. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp 533–540Google Scholar
  110. Neuberger O (2000) Dilemmata und Paradoxa im Managementprozess. In: Schreyögg G (ed) Funktionswandel im Management: Weg jenseits der Ordnung. Dunker und Humblot, Berlin, pp 173–219Google Scholar
  111. Neuberger O (2002) Führen und führen lassen, 6th edn. Lucius and Lucius, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  112. Nienhüser W (1996) Die Entwicklung theoretischer Modelle als Beitrag zur Fundierung der Personalwirtschaftslehre: Überlegungen am Beispiel der Erklärung des Zustandekommens von Personalstrategien. In: Weber W (ed) Grundlagen der Personalwirtschaft. Theorien und Konzepte. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 39–88Google Scholar
  113. Oechsler WA (2000b) Workplace and workforce 2,000+: the future of our work environment. Int Archiv Occup Environ Health 73(9):28–32Google Scholar
  114. Ofori-Dankwa J, Julian SD (2004) Conceptualizing social science paradoxes using the diversity and similarity curves model: illustrations from the work/play and theory novelty/continuity paradoxes. Hum Relat 57(11):1149–1477Google Scholar
  115. Opp K-D (2002) Methodologie der Sozialwissenschaften: Einführung in Probleme ihrer Theorienbildung und praktischen Anwendung, 5th edn. Westdeutscher, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  116. Organ DW (1971) Linking pins between organizations and environment: individuals do the interacting. Bus Horiz 14(6):73–80Google Scholar
  117. Örtqvist D, Wincent J (2006) Prominent consequences of role stress: a meta-analytic review. Int J Stress Manage 13(4):399–422Google Scholar
  118. Osterloh M, Grand S (1995) Modellbildung versus Frameworking: Die Positionen von Williamson und Porter. In: Wächter H (ed) Selbstverständnis betriebswirtschaftlicher Forschung und Lehre: Tagung der Kommission Wissenschaftstheorie. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  119. Ouchi WG (1989) The economics of organization. In: Evans P, Doz Y, Laurent A (eds) Human resource management in international firms. Macmillan, London, pp 7–17Google Scholar
  120. Paauwe J (2004) HRM and performance: achieving long-term viability. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  121. Panayotopoulou L, Bourantas D, Papalexandris N (2003) Strategic human resource management and its effects on firm performance: an implementation of the competing values framework. Int J Hum Resour Manage 14(4):680–699Google Scholar
  122. Pascale RT (1990) Managing on the edge: how the smartest companies use conflict to stay ahead. Pocket Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  123. Peters TJ, Waterman RH (1982) In search of excellence: lessons from america's best-run companies. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Piderit SK (2000) Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: a multidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change. Acad Manage Rev 25(4):783–794Google Scholar
  125. Poole MS, Van de Ven AH (1989) Using paradox to build management and organization theories. Acad Manage Rev 14(4):562–578Google Scholar
  126. Popper KR (1969) Logik der Forschung, 3th edn. Mohr Paul Siebeck, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  127. Porter ME (1980) Competitive strategy. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  128. Prechtl P (ed) (1999) Metzler Philosophie Lexikon: Begriffe und Definitionen. Metzler, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  129. Probst G, Raisch S (2005) Organizational crisis: the logic of failure. Acad Manage Exec 19(1): 90–105Google Scholar
  130. Quinn RE, Cameron KS (1988a) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  131. Quinn RE, Cameron KS (1988b) Paradox and transformation: a dynamic theory of organization and management. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp 289–308Google Scholar
  132. Quinn RE, Rohrbaugh J (1983) A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: towards a competing values approach to organizational effectiveness. Manage Sci 29:363–377Google Scholar
  133. Raisch S (2005) Tapping the power of paradox: organizing for profitable growth. Die Unternehmung 4:353–365Google Scholar
  134. Regnér P (2003) Strategy creation in the periphery: inductive versus deductive strategy making. J Manage Stud 40(1):57–82Google Scholar
  135. Rehfus WD (2003) Handwörterbuch Philosophie. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  136. Remer A (1988) Das Managementsystem als Entscheidungsgegenstand. Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium WiSt 11:559–563Google Scholar
  137. Remer A (1997) Personal und Management im Wandel der Strategien. In: Klimecki RG, Remer A (eds) Personal als Strategie. Mit flexiblen und lernbereiten Human-Ressourcen Kernkompetenzen aufbauen. Luchterhand, Neuwied, pp 399–417Google Scholar
  138. Remer A (2001) Management im Dilemma: Von der konsistenten zur kompensatorischen Managementkonfiguration. Die Unternehmung 55(6):353–375Google Scholar
  139. Roehling MV, Boswell WR, Caligiuri P, Feldman D, Grahman ME, Guthrie JP, Morishima M, Tansky JW (2005) The future of HR management: research needs and directions. Hum Resour Manage 44(2):207–216Google Scholar
  140. Roth E, Holling H (eds) (1999) Sozialwissenschaftliche Methoden: Lehr- und Handbuch für Forschung und Praxis, 5th edn. Oldenbourg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  141. Rothenburg A (1979) The emerging goddess. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  142. Schanz G (1988) Methodologie für Betriebswirte, 2nd edn. Poeschel, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  143. Schanz G (2000) Personalwirtschaftslehre: Lebendige Arbeit in verhaltenswissenschaftlicher Perspektive, 3rd edn. Vahlen, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  144. Schnell R, Hill PB, Esser E (2005) Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung, 7th edn. Oldenbourg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  145. Seidel E (1994) Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften und Fristigkeit des ökonomischen Kalküls. In: Biervert B, Held M (eds) Das Naturverständnis der Ökonomik: Beiträge zur Ethikdebatte in den Wirtschaftswisenschaften. Campus, Frankfurt/Main, pp 147–174Google Scholar
  146. Shadish WR, Cook TD, Campbell DT (2002) Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Houghton-Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  147. Slaatte HA (1968) The pertinence of the paradox. Humanities, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  148. Snow CC, Thomas JB (1994) Field research methods in strategic management: contributions to theory building and testing. J Manage Stud 31(4):457–480Google Scholar
  149. Stahl GK, Caligiuri P (2005) The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: the moderating role of cultural distance, position level and time on the international assignment. J Appl Psychol 90(4):603–615Google Scholar
  150. Starbuck WH (1976) Organizations and their environments. In: Dunnette MD (ed) Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Rand McNally College, Chicago, pp 1069–1107Google Scholar
  151. Styhre A (2005) Management writing out of bounds: writing after postcolonialism. Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press, MalmöGoogle Scholar
  152. Sutton RI, Staw BM (1995) What theory is not. Adm Sci Q 40(3):371–384Google Scholar
  153. Sydow J, Windeler A (2003) Knowledge, trust, and control: managing tensions and contradictions in a regional network of service firms. Int Stud Manage Organ 33(2):69–99Google Scholar
  154. Trompenaars F, Hampden-Turner CM (1997) Riding the waves of culture: understanding cultural diversity in business. Nicholas Brealey, LondonGoogle Scholar
  155. Van de Ven AH (2006) Engaged scholarship: creating knowledge for science and practice. Book outline. Accessed via, 15 June 2006. The printed version was published in 2007: Engaged scholarship: a guide for organizational and social research. Oxford University Press, Oxford
  156. Van de Ven AH, Poole MS (1995) Explaining development and change in organizations. Acad Manage Rev 20(3):510–540Google Scholar
  157. Van de Ven AH, Poole MS (2005) Alternative approaches for studying organizational change. Organ Stud 26(9):1377–1404Google Scholar
  158. van Heigenoort J (1972) Logical paradoxes. In: Edwards P (ed) Encyclopedia of philosophy. Macmillan, New York, pp 45–51Google Scholar
  159. Weber W, Kabst R (2004) Human resource management: the need for theory and diversity. Manage Rev 15(2):171–177Google Scholar
  160. Weick KE (1989) Theory construction as disciplined imagination. Acad Manage Rev 14:516–531Google Scholar
  161. Weick KE (1995) What theory is not, theorizing is. Adm Sci Q 40(3):385–390Google Scholar
  162. Weick KE (1999) Theory construction as disciplined reflexivity: tradeoffs in the 90s. Acad Manage Rev 24(4):797–806Google Scholar
  163. Weick KE (2002) Puzzles in organizational learning: an exercise in disciplined imagination. Br J Manage 13(2):7–15Google Scholar
  164. Weick KE, Quinn RE (1999) Organizational change and development. Annu Rev Psychol 50: 361–386Google Scholar
  165. Weick KE, Sutcliffe KM, Obstfeld D (2005) Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Organ Sci 16(4):409–421Google Scholar
  166. Westermann R (2000) Wissenschaftstheorie und Experimentalmethodik: Ein Lehrbuch zur psychologischen Methodenlehre. Hogrefe, Verlag für Psychologie, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  167. Whetten DA (1989) What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Acad Manage Rev 14(4):490–495Google Scholar
  168. Wolf J (2005) Organisation, Management, Unternehmensführung: Theorien und Kritik, 2nd edn. Gabler, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  169. Wooten KC (2001) Ethical dilemmas in human resource management: an application of a multidimensional framework, a unifying taxonomy, and applicable codes. Hum Resou Manage Rev 11(1/2):159–175Google Scholar
  170. Wright A (2005) The role of scenarios as prospective sensemaking devices. Manage Decis 43(1):86–101Google Scholar
  171. Wright A (2007) Making sense of ambiguities through bricolage. In: Müller-Christ G, Arndt L, Ehnert I (eds) Nachhaltigkeit und Widersprüche: Eine Managementperspektive, 1st edn. LIT, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  172. Wright PM, McMahan GC (1992) Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. J Manage 18(2):295–320Google Scholar
  173. Wright PM, Snell SA (2005) Partner or guardian? HR's challenge in balancing value and values. Hum Resour Manage 44(2):177–182Google Scholar
  174. Yin RK (1994) Case study research: design and methods, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations