Introducing Sustainability into HRM

Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


This dissertation, Sustainable Human Resource Management: A Conceptual and Exploratory Analysis from a Paradox Perspective builds primarily on the recently emerging literature linking the concept of sustainability and human resource (HR) issues. Furthermore, it draws on relevant insights in established fields of research such as Strategic HRM (SHRM), Sustainable Resource Management (SRM), and organisation theory. Practical relevance of this topic is deduced in this introduction from examples as well as from the literature on sustainability and HRM.1

Over the past two decades, technological developments, competitive demands, and globalisation have caused dramatic changes within and across organisations (e.g., Barkema et al. 2002), and have transformed general conditions for Human Resource Management (HRM) strategy and decision-making (e.g., Scholz 2000). Developments within and outside of organisations are drivers for and reactions to an increasing pressure for competitiveness and flexibility influencing HR practices and strategies (Gmür and Klimecki 2001; Oechsler 2004a; Schuler and Jackson 2005). Trends such as demographic development, internationalisation and globalisation, or lack of quality in some educational systems have only just started slipping into the consciousness of practitioners and researchers highlighting the need for more sustainable HR practices and strategies.


Corporate Social Responsibility Human Resource Management Feedback Effect Human Resource Management Practice Human Resource Practice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ansoff IH (1965) Corporate strategy. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Appelbaum E (2002) The impact of new forms of work organization on workers. In: Murray G, Belanger J, Giles AK, Lapointe P-A (eds) Work employment relations in the high-performance workplace. Continuum, London, pp 120–149Google Scholar
  3. Aragón-Sánchez A, Barba-Aragón I, Sanz-Valle R (2003) Effects of training on business results. Int J Hum Resour Manage 14(6):956–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacharach SB (1989) Organizational theories: some criteria for evaluation. Acad Manage Rev 14(4):496–515Google Scholar
  5. Backes-Gellner U (2004) Personnel economics: an economic approach to human resource management. Manage Rev 15(2):215–227Google Scholar
  6. Balashov Y, Rosenberg A (2002) Philosophy of science: contemporary readings. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkema HG, Baum JAC, Mannix EA (2002) Management challenges in a new time. Acad Manage J 45(5):916–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barney JB (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. J Manage 17(1):99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barney J, Wright M, Ketchen DJ (2001) The resource-based view of the firm: ten years after 1991. J Manage 27(6):625–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker GS (1964) Human capital. National Bureau of Economics, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger P, Luckmann T (1967) The social construction of reality. Anchor Books, Garden City, NYGoogle Scholar
  12. Bortz J, Döring N (1995) Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation: Für Sozialwissenschaftler, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. Boselie P (2002) Human resource management, work systems and performance: a theoretical-empirical approach. Dissertation, University of RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Boselie P, Dietz G, Boon C (2005) Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research. Hum Resour Manage J 15(3):67–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boudreau JW, Ramstad PM (2005) Talentship, talent segmentation, and sustainability: a new HR decision science paradigm for a new strategy definition. Hum Resour Manage 44(2):129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boxall P (1996) The Strategic HRM debate and the resource-based view of the firm. Hum Resour Manage J 6(3):59–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boxall P, Purcell J (2003) Strategy and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  18. Brewster C (1999) Strategic human resource management: the value of different paradigms. Manage Int Rev 39(3):45–64(special issue)Google Scholar
  19. Brewster C (2002) Human resource practices in multinational companies. In: Martin JG, Karen LN (eds) The Blackwell handbook of cross-cultural management. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 126–141Google Scholar
  20. Brewster C, Larsen H (2000) Human resource management in Northern Europe: trends, dilemmas and strategy. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Brewster C, Suutari V (2005) Guest editorial. Global HRM: aspects of a research agenda. Pers Rev 43(1):5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brewster C, Sparrow P, Harris H (2005) Towards a new model of globalizing HRM. Int J Hum Resour Manage 16(6):949–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brewster C, Wood G, Brookes M (2006) Similarity, isomorphism or duality?: recent survey evidence on the HRM policies of MNCs. Paper presented at the EURAM Conference, 16–20 May 2006, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  24. Brödner P (2002) Flexibilität, Arbeitsbelastung und nachhaltige Arbeitsgestaltung. In:Brödner P, Knuth M (eds) Nachhaltige Arbeitsgestaltung. Trendreports zur Entwicklung und Nutzung von Humanressourcen. Rainer Hampp, München, Mering, pp 489–541Google Scholar
  25. Brödner P, Forslin J (2002) O tempora, O mores!: work intensity – why again an issue? In: Docherty P, Forslin J, Shani ABR (eds) Creating sustainable work systems. emerging perspectives and practice. Routledge, London, pp 15–26Google Scholar
  26. Buchanan JM, Stubblebine WC (1962) Externality. Economica 29(116):371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cameron KS, Quinn RE (1988) Organizational paradox and transformation. In: Quinn RE, Cameron KS (eds) Paradox and transformation: toward a theory of change in organization and management. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  28. Chalmers AF (2001) Wege der Wissenschaft: Einführung in die Wissenschaftstheorie, 5th edn. Springer, Tokio (Original edition: What is this thing called science? University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, 1999)Google Scholar
  29. Chambers EG, Foulon M, Handfield-Jones H, Hankin SM, Michaels EG (1998) The war for talent. McKinsey Q 3:44–57Google Scholar
  30. Chia R, Holt R (2006) Strategy as practical coping: a Heideggerian perspective. Organ Stud 27(5):635–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chmielewicz K (1979) Forschungskonzeptionen der Wirtschaftswissenschaft, 2nd edn. Schäffer-Poeschel, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  32. Claessens BJC, Van Eerde W, Rutte CG, Roe RA (2004) Planning behavior and perceived control of time at work. J Organ Behav 25:937–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cook MF (1999) Outsourcing human resources functions. strategies or providing enhanced HR services at lower cost. Amacom, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Czarniawska B (2001) Is it possible to be a constructionist consultant? Manage Learn 32(2): 253–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Delery JE, Doty DH (1996) Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: test of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Acad Manage J 39(4):802–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (2005b) Introduction: the discipline and practice of qualitative research. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) The Sage handbook of qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  37. Dey C (2002) Methodological issues: the use of critical ethnography as an active research methodology. Account Audit Account J 15(1):106–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Docherty P, Forslin J, Shani ABR (2002a) Creating sustainable work systems: emerging perspectives and practice. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Docherty P, Forslin J, Shani ABR, Kira M (2002c) Emerging work systems: from intensive to sustainable. In: Docherty P, Forslin J, Shani ABR (eds) Creating sustainable work systems. Emerging perspectives and practice. Routledge, London, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  40. Dörner D (1994) Heuristik der Theorienbildung. In: Herrmann T, Tack W (eds) Methodologische Grundlagen der Psychologie. Hogrefe, Göttingen, pp 343–388Google Scholar
  41. Dowling PJ, Festing M, Engle AD (2008) International human resource management: managing people in a multinational context, 5th edn. Thomson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Drumm HJ (1993) Personalwirtschaft: Auf dem Weg zu einer theoretisch-empirischen Personalwirtschaftslehre? In: Hauschildt J, Grün O (eds) Ergebnisse empirischer betriebswirtschaftlicher Forschung: Zu einer Realtheorie der Unternehmung. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp 673–712Google Scholar
  43. Drumm HJ (1996) Theoretische und verantwortungsethische Grundlagen des Personalmanagements. In: Weber W (ed) Grundlagen der Personalwirtschaft. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  44. Drumm HJ (2000) Personalwirtschaft, 4th edn. Springer, TokioGoogle Scholar
  45. Dubin R (1976) Theory building in applied areas. In: Dunnette MD (ed) Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Rand McNally, Chicago, pp 17–39Google Scholar
  46. Dyllick T, Hockerts K (2002) Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Bus Strategy Environ 11(2):130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ehnert I (2006a) Sustainability issues in human resource management: linkages, theoretical approaches, and outlines for an emerging field. Paper presented at 21st EIASM Workshop on SHRM, 30–31 March 2006, BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  48. Ehnert I (2007a) Representations of sustainability in HRM: a conceptual and website analysis. Paper presented at 22nd Workshop on Strategic HRM, 19–20 April 2007, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  49. Ehnert I, Brewster C (2008) An integrative framework for expatriate preparation and training. In: Dickmann M, Sparrow P, Brewster C (eds) International HRM: contemporary issues in Europe, 2nd edn. Routledge, London, pp 107–129Google Scholar
  50. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Acad Manage Rev 14(4): 532–550Google Scholar
  51. Evans PAL (1999) HRM on the edge: a duality perspective. Organization 6(2):325–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Evans P, Doz Y (1991) The dualistic organization. In: Evans P, Doz Y, Laurent A (eds) Human resource management in international firms: change, globalization, innovation, 3rd edn. Macmillan, Houndmills, pp 219–242Google Scholar
  53. Evans P, Génadry N (1999) A duality-based prospective for strategic human resource management. In: Wright PM, Dyer LD, Boudreau JW, Milkovich GT (eds) Research in personnel and human resoure management, supplement 4. JAI, Greenwich, CT, pp 367–395Google Scholar
  54. Evans PAL, Pucik V, Barsoux J-L (2002) The global challenge: frameworks for international human resource management. McGraw-Hill Irwin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  55. Flämig M (1998) Naturwissenschaftliche Weltbilder in Managementtheorien: Chaostheorie, Selbstorganisation, Autopoiesis. Campus, Frankfurt/MainGoogle Scholar
  56. Fontana A, Frey JH (2005) The interview: from neutral stance to political involvement. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) The Sage handbook of qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 695–727Google Scholar
  57. Freiling J (2004a) A competence-based theory of the firm. Manage Rev 15(1):27–53Google Scholar
  58. Friedrichs J (1990) Methoden empirischer Sozialforschung, 14th edn. Westdeutscher, OpladenGoogle Scholar
  59. Gephart RP (2004) From the editors. Qualitative research and the Academy of Management Journal. Acad Manage J 47(4):454–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gerdes L (2006) Get ready for a pickier workforce. Bus Week 18(September):1–2Google Scholar
  61. Ghoshal S (2005) Bad management theories are destroying good management practices. Acad Manage Learn Educ 4(1):75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gioia DA (2003) Give it up! Reflections on the interpreted world (a commentary on Meckler and Baillie). J Manage Inq 12(3):285–292Google Scholar
  63. Gioia DA, Pitre E (1990) Multiparadigm perspectives on theory building. Acad Manage Rev 15(4):584–602Google Scholar
  64. Gladwin TN, Kennelly JJ, Krause T-S (1995) Shifting paradigms for sustainable development: implications for management theory and research. Acad Manage Rev 20(4):874–907Google Scholar
  65. Gmür M, Klimecki R (2001) Personalbindung und Flexibilisierung. Zeitschrift für Führung und Organisation 70(1):28–34Google Scholar
  66. Grant RM (1991) The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: implications for strategy formulation. Calif Manage Rev 33(3):114–135Google Scholar
  67. Greenhaus JH, Powell GN (2006) When work and family are allies: a theory of work–family enrichment. Acad Manage Rev 31(1):72–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gregersen HB, Morrison AJ, Black JS (1998) Developing leaders for the global frontier. Sloan Manage Rev 40(1):21–32Google Scholar
  69. Guba EG, Lincoln YS (2005) Paradigmatic, controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) The Sage handbook of qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 191–215Google Scholar
  70. Guest DE (1997) Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda. Int J Hum Resour Manage 8(3):263–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Guest DE (2001) Human resource management: when research confronts theory. Int J Hum Resour Manage 12(7):1092–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hansen U, Schrader U (2005) Corporate social responsibility als aktuelles Thema der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Die Betriebswirtschaft 65(4):373–395Google Scholar
  73. Hatchuel A (2002) Sources of intensity in work organizations. In: Docherty P, Forslin J, Shani ABR (eds) Creating sustainable work systems. emerging perspectives and practice. Routledge, London, pp 40–51Google Scholar
  74. Helfat C, Finkelstein S, Mitchell W, Peteraf MA, Singh H (eds) (2007) Dynamic capabilities: understanding strategic change in organizations. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  75. Hill W, Fehlbaum R, Ulrich P (1994) Organisationslehre: Ziele, Instrumente und Bedingungen der Organisation sozialer Systeme, 5th edn. Haupt, BernGoogle Scholar
  76. Hiltrop JM (1995) The changing psychological contract. Eur Manage J 13(3):286–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hirsch PM, Levin DZ (1999) Umbrella advocates versus validity police: a life-cycle model. Organ Sci 10(2):199–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Holliday CO, Schmidheiny S, Watts P (2002) Walking the talk: the business case for sustainable development, 1st edn. Greenleaf, SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  79. Hülsmann M (2003) Management im Orientierungsdilemma: Unternehmen zwischen Effizienz und Nachhaltigkeit, 1st edn. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  80. Huselid M (1995) The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity and corporate financial performance. Acad Manage J 38(3):635–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Huzzard T (2003) The convergence of the quality of working life and competitiveness: a current Swedish literature review. National Institute for Working Life, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  82. Isenmann R, Bey C, Welter M (2007) Online reporting for sustainability issues. Bus Strategy Environ 16:(2007), 487–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jackson SE, Schuler R (1995) Understanding human resource management in the context of organizations and their environments. Annu Rev Psychol 46(1):237–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Johnson P, Buehring A, Cassell C, Symon G (2006) Evaluating qualitative management research: towards a contingent criteriology. Int J Manage Rev 8(3):131–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kahn JR (1995) The economic approach to environmental and natural resources. Dryden, Fort Worth, TXGoogle Scholar
  86. Kira M (2002) Moving from consuming to regenerative work. In: Docherty P, Forslin J, Shani ABR (eds) Creating sustainable work systems. Emerging perspectives and practice. Routledge, London, pp 29–39Google Scholar
  87. Kira M (2003) From good work to sustainable development: human resource consumption and regeneration in the post-bureaucratic working life. Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  88. Klimecki R, Gmür M (2001) Personalmanagement: Strategien, Erfolgsbeiträge, Entwicklungsperspektiven, 2nd edn. Lucius und Lucius, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  89. Knights D (1992) Changing spaces: the disruptive impact of a new epistemological location for the study of management. Acad Manage Rev 17(3):514–536Google Scholar
  90. Kohonen E (2005) Developing global leaders through international assignments: an identity construction perspective. Pers Rev 34(1):22–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kuhn TS (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  92. Ladyman J (2002) Understanding philosophy of science. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  93. Lazarova M, Caligiuri P (2004) Repatriation and knowledge management. In: Harzing A-W, van Ruysseveldt J (eds) International human resource management, 2nd edn. Sage, London, pp 333–356Google Scholar
  94. Legge K (2005) Human resource management: rhetorics and realities, Anniversary edn. Palgrave MacMillan, HampshireGoogle Scholar
  95. Lewis MW, Grimes AJ (1999) Metatriangulation: building theory from multiple paradigms. Acad Manage Rev 24(4):672–690Google Scholar
  96. Lewis MW, Kelemen ML (2002) Multiparadigm inquiry: exploring organizational pluralism and paradox. Hum Relat 55(2):251–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Luhmann N (1993) Die Paradoxie des Entscheidens. Zeitschrift für Verwaltungslehre, Verwaltungsrecht und Verwaltungspolitik 84(3):287–310Google Scholar
  98. Luhmann N (2005) The paradox of decision making. In: Seidl D, Becker KH (eds) Niklas Luhmann and organization studies. Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen, pp 85–142Google Scholar
  99. Lynham SA (2000) Theory building in the human resource development profession. Hum Resour Dev Q 11(2):159–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mariappanadar S (2003) Sustainable human resource strategy: the sustainable and unsustainable dilemmas of retrenchment. Int J Soc Econ 30(8):906–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Martin A (2004) A plea for a behavioural approach in the science of human resource management. Manage Rev 15(2):201–214Google Scholar
  102. McKelvey B (1997) Quasi-natural organization science. Organ Sci 8:352–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McMahan GC, Virick M, Wright PM (1999) Alternative theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management revisited: progress, problems, and prospects. In: Wright PM, Dyer LD, Boudreau JW, Milkovich GT (eds) Research in personnel and human resource management, supplement 4. JAI, Greenwich, CT, pp 99–122Google Scholar
  104. Mendenhall ME (1999) On the need for paradigmatic integration in international human resource management. Manage Int Rev 3:65–87(special issue)Google Scholar
  105. Mendenhall ME, Stahl GK (2000) Expatriate training and development: where do we go from here? Hum Resour Manage 39(2/3):251–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mendenhall ME, Macomber JH, Gregersen H, Cutright M (1998) Nonlinear dynamics: a new perspective on IHRM research and practice in the 21st century. Hum Resou Manage Rev 8(1):5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mendenhall ME, Kühlmann TM, Stahl GK (2001) Developing global business leaders: policies, processes, and innovations. Quorum Books, Westport, CTGoogle Scholar
  108. Mintzberg H (1987) The strategy concept I: five Ps for strategy. Calif Manage Rev 30(1):11–24Google Scholar
  109. Mir R, Watson A (2000) Strategic management and the philosophy of science: the case for a constructivist methodology. Strateg Manage J 21(9):941–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Moldaschl M (eds) (2005a) Immaterielle Ressourcen: Nachhaltigkeit von Unternehmensführung und Arbeit, vol I, 1st edn. Rainer Hampp, München, MeringGoogle Scholar
  111. Moldaschl M, Fischer D (2004) Beyond the management view: a resource-centered socio-economic perspective. Manage Rev 15(1):122–152(special issue)Google Scholar
  112. Möllering G, Bachmann R, Lee SH (2004) Introduction: understanding organizational trust – foundations, constellations, and issues of operationalisation. J Manage Psychol 19(6):556–570Google Scholar
  113. Müller-Christ G (2001) Nachhaltiges Ressourcenmanagement: Eine wirtschaftsökologische Fundierung. Metropolis, MarburgGoogle Scholar
  114. Müller-Christ G, Remer A (1999) Umweltwirtschaft oder Wirtschaftsökologie? Vorüberlegung zu einer Theorie des Ressourcenmanagements. In: Seidel E (ed) Betriebliches Umweltmanagement im 21. Jahrhundert: Aspekte, Aufgaben, Perspektiven. Springer, Berlin, pp 69–87Google Scholar
  115. Ng ESW, Burke RJ (2005) Person–organization fit and the war for talent: does diversity management make a difference? Int J Hum Resour Manage 16(7):1195–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nienhüser W (1996) Die Entwicklung theoretischer Modelle als Beitrag zur Fundierung der Personalwirtschaftslehre: Überlegungen am Beispiel der Erklärung des Zustandekommens von Personalstrategien. In: Weber W (ed) Grundlagen der Personalwirtschaft. Theorien und Konzepte. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 39–88Google Scholar
  117. Oechsler WA (2000b) Workplace and workforce 2,000+: the future of our work environment. Int Archiv Occup Environ Health 73(9):28–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Oechsler WA (2004a) Gesellschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen des Beschäftigungsmanagement: Zur Nachhaltigkeit von Problemen im Bereich Arbeit und Beschäftigung. In: Schneider U, Steiner P (eds) Betriebswirtschaftslehre und gesellschaftliche Verantwortung: Mit Corporate Social Responsibility zu mehr Engagement. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 85–103Google Scholar
  119. Opp K-D (2002) Methodologie der Sozialwissenschaften: Einführung in Probleme ihrer Theorienbildung und praktischen Anwendung, 5th edn. Westdeutscher, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  120. Osterloh M, Grand S (1995) Modellbildung versus Frameworking: Die Positionen von Williamson und Porter. In: Wächter H (ed) Selbstverständnis betriebswirtschaftlicher Forschung und Lehre: Tagung der Kommission Wissenschaftstheorie. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  121. Paauwe J (2004) HRM and performance: achieving long-term viability. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Pfeffer J (1998) The human equation: building profits by putting people first. Harvard Business School Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  123. Poole MS, Van de Ven AH (1989) Using paradox to build management and organization theories. Acad Manage Rev 14(4):562–578Google Scholar
  124. Pozzebon M (2004) The influence of a structurationist view on strategic management research. J Manage Stud 41(2):247–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Price Waterhouse Coopers (2007) Managing tomorrow's people. The future of work to 2020. 15 Dec 2007Google Scholar
  126. Rainey DL (2006) Sustainable business development: inventing the future through strategy, innovation, and leadership. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Resch M, Bamberg E (2005) Work–Life-Balance: Ein neuer Blick auf die Vereinbarkeit von Berufs- und Privatleben? Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie 49(4):171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Salzmann O, Ionescu-Somers A, Steger U (2005) The business case for corporate sustainability: literature review and research options. Eur Manage J 23(1):27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Schauenberg B (2004) Wissenschaftstheoretische Einordnung des Personalmanagements. In: Gaugler E, Oechsler WA, Weber W (eds) Handwörterbuch des Personalwesens, 3rd edn. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp 1909–1920Google Scholar
  130. Scherer AG (1998) Pluralism and incommensurability in strategic management and organization theory: a problem in search of a solution. Organization 5(2):147–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Scherm E (1999) Internationales Personalmanagement, 2nd edn. Oldenbourg, WienGoogle Scholar
  132. Schmidheiny S (1992) Changing course: a global business perspective on development and the environment. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  133. Scholz C (2000) Personalmanagement: Informationsorientierte und verhaltenstheoretische Grundlagen, 5th edn. Vahlen, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  134. Schuler RS, Jackson SE (2005) A quarter-century review of human resource management in the U.S.: the growth in importance of the international perspective. Manage Rev 16(1):11–35Google Scholar
  135. Schuler RS, Jackson SE (2006) Human resource management: international perspectives. Thomson South-Western, Mason, OHGoogle Scholar
  136. Seiffert H (1973) Einführung in die Wissenschaftstheorie 1: Sprachanalyse – Deduktion – Induktion in Natur- und Sozialwissenschaften, 6th edn. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  137. Sparrow P, Brewster C, Harris H (2004) Globalizing human resource management. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  138. Stahl GK, Björkman I, Farndale E, Morris SS, Paauwe J, Stiles P, Trevor J, Wright PM (2007) Global talent management: how leading multinationals build and sustain their talent pipeline. Working Paper. INSEAD, FontainebleauGoogle Scholar
  139. Starbuck WH (2004) Why I stopped trying to understand the real world. Organ Stud 25(7): 1233–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Süß S (2005) Personaltheorie: Status Quo und Perspektiven der Forschung. Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium (WiSt) 34(7):380–384Google Scholar
  141. Taylor S, Beechler S, Napier N (1996) Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management. Acad Manage Rev 21(4):959–985Google Scholar
  142. Thom N, Zaugg RJ (2002) Das Prinzip Nachhaltigkeit im Personalmanagement. Personalführung 35(7):52–55Google Scholar
  143. Thom N, Zaugg RJ (2004) Nachhaltiges und innovatives Personalmanagement: Spitzengruppenbefragung in europäischen Unternehmungen und Institutionen. In: Schwarz EJ (ed) Nachhaltiges Innovationsmanagement. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 215–245Google Scholar
  144. Tsui AS, Wu JB (2005) The new employment relationship versus the mutual investment approach: implications for human resource management. Hum Resour Manage 44(2):115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Van de Ven AH (2006) Engaged scholarship: creating knowledge for science and practice. Book outline. Accessed via, 15 June 2006. The printed version was published in 2007: Engaged scholarship: a guide for organizational and social research. Oxford University Press, Oxford
  146. Van de Ven AH, Poole MS (2005) Alternative approaches for studying organizational change. Organ Stud 26(9):1377–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Way SA, Johnson DE (2005) Theorizing about the impact of strategic human resource management. Hum Resou Manage Rev 15(1):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. WBCSD (2002) Corporate social responsibility: The WBCSD's journey. Accessed via
  149. WBCSD (2005) Driving success: human resources and sustainable development. Accessed via
  150. Weber W (ed) (1996) Grundlagen der Personalwirtschaft: Theorien und Konzepte. Gabler, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  151. Weber W (2004) Theoretische Fundierung des Personalmanagements. In: Gaugler E, Oechsler WA, Weber W (eds) Handwörterbuch des Personalwesens, 3rd edn. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp 1909–1919Google Scholar
  152. Weber W, Kabst R (2004) Human resource management: the need for theory and diversity. Manage Rev 15(2):171–177Google Scholar
  153. Weick KE (1995) What theory is not, theorizing is. Adm Sci Q 40(3):385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Weick KE (1999) Theory construction as disciplined reflexivity: tradeoffs in the 90s. Acad Manage Rev 24(4):797–806Google Scholar
  155. Weissenberger-Eibl MA (2004b) Nachhaltigkeit als Entdeckung und Neubewertung von Organisationskonzepten. In: Horst Wildemann (ed) Organisation und Personal. Festschrift für Rolf Bühner. TCW, Transfer-Centrum, München, pp 315–329Google Scholar
  156. Whetten DA, Rands G, Godfrey P (2002) What are the responsibilities of business to society? In: Pettigrew A (ed) Handbook of strategy and management. Sage, London, pp 373–408Google Scholar
  157. Wolf J (2004) Strategieorientierte Ansätze des Personalmanagements. In: Gaugler E, Oechsler WA, Weber W (eds) Handwörterbuch des Personalwesens, 3rd edn. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp 1826–1837Google Scholar
  158. Wright PM, McMahan GC (1992) Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. J Manage 18(2):295–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wright PM, Nishii LH (2006) Strategic HRM and organizational behavior: integrating multiple levels of analysis. Working Paper 06–05, CAHRS Working Paper Series, Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  160. Wright PM, Snell SA (2005) Partner or guardian? HR's challenge in balancing value and values. Hum Resour Manage 44(2):177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wright PM, Dunford BB, Snell SA (2001) Human resources and the resourced based view of the firm. J Manage 27(6):701–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wright PM, Gardner TM, Moynihan LM, Allen MR (2005b) The relationship between HR practices and firm performance: examining causal order. Pers Psychol 58(2):409–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zaugg R, Blum A, Thom N (2001) Nachhaltiges Personalmanagement: Spitzengruppenbefragung in europäischen Unternehmungen und Institutionen. Arbeitsbericht Nr. 51 des Instituts für Organisation und Personal, Universität Bern, BernGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations