Determinants of Length of Stay – A Parametric Survival Analysis

  • António Gomes de Menezes
  • José Cabral Vieira
  • Ana Isabel Moniz


Length of stay is an important determinant of the overall impact of tourism in a given economy. The number of days that tourists stay at a particular destination is likely to influence their expenditure, for instance, as the number of possible experiences to be undertaken by tourists depends on their length of stay (Davies and Mangan 1992; Kozak 2004; Legoherel 1998). Understanding the determinants of length of stay is, thus, important to fully characterize tourism demand and its impact on a given tourist destination (Gokovali, Bahar and Kozak 2007). In addition, Alegre and Pou (2006) argue that the importance of uncovering the determinants of length of stay and concomitant gains to policymakers and researchers alike has grown with the increasingly pervasive pattern of shorter lengths of stays. Alegre and Pou claim that uncovering the microeconomic determinants of length of stay is critical to the design of marketing policies that effectively promote longer stays,...


Hazard Rate Weibull Model Gompertz Model Longe Stay Baseline Hazard Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alegre J, Pou L (2006) The length of stay in the demand for tourism. Tourism Manage 27:1343–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bargeman B, Poel V (2006) The role of routines in the decision making process of dutch vacationers. Tourism Manage 27:707–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berman, M, Kim H (1999) Endogenous on-site time in the recreation demand model. Land Econ 75:603–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cleves M, Gould W, Gutierrez R (2002) An introduction to survival analysis using Stata. Stata Press, College Station TexasGoogle Scholar
  5. Crouch G (1994) A meta-analysis of tourism demand. Ann Tourism Res 22:103–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crouch G, Louviére I (2000) A review of choice modeling research in tourism, hospitality, and leisure. Tourism Anal 5:97–104Google Scholar
  7. Davies B, Mangan J (1992) Family expenditure on hotels and holidays. Ann Tourism Res 19:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Decrop A, Snelders D (2004) Planning the summer vacation: An adaptable and opportunistic process. Ann Tourism Res 31:1008–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dubin J, McFadden D (1984) An econometric analysis of residential electric appliance holdings and consumption. Econometrica 52:345–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feather P, Shaw D (1999) Possibilities for including the opportunity cost of time in recreational demand systems. Land Econ 75:592–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fleischer A, Pizam A (2002) Tourism constraints among Israeli seniors. Ann Tourism Res 29:106–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gokovali U, Bahar O, Kozak M (2007) Determinants of length of stay: A practical use of survival analysis. Tourism Manage (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Greene W (2000) Econometric analysis. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  14. Hanemann W (1984) Discrete/continuous models of consumer demand. Econometrica 52:541–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hellström JA (2006) Bivariate count data model for household tourism demand. J Appl Econom 21:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hill M, Hill A (2002) Research with surveys. Sílabo, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  17. Hosmer D, Lemeshow S (1993) Applied survival analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. McConnell K (1992) On-site time in the demand for recreation. Am J Agric Econ 74:918–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jafari J (1987) Tourism models: The sociocultural aspects. Tourism Manage 8:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kieffer N (1988) Economic duration and hazard functions. J Econ Lit 26:646–667Google Scholar
  21. Kozak M (2001) Repeaters' behavior at two distinct destinations. Ann Tourism Res 28:785–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kozak M (2004) Destination benchmarking: Concepts, practices and operations. CAB International, Oxon CabGoogle Scholar
  23. Lancaster T (1990) The econometric analysis of transition data. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. Larson D (1993) Joint recreation choices and implied value of time. Land Econ 69:270–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lehto X, O'Leary J, Morrison A (2004) The effect of prior experience on vacation behavior. Ann Tourism Res 31:801–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Legoherel P (1998) Toward a market segmentation of the tourism trade: Expenditure levels and consumer behavior instability. J Travel Tourism Mark 7:19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lim C (1997) An econometric classification and review of international tourism demand models. Tourism Econ 3:69–81Google Scholar
  28. Mathieson A, Wall J(1992) Tourism: Economic, physical and social impacts. Prentice Hall, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  29. McConnell K (1992) On-site time in the demand for recreation. Am J Agric EconGoogle Scholar
  30. Mok C, Iverson T (2000) Expenditure-based segmentation: Taiwanese tourists to Guam. Tourism Manage 21:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moscardo G, Morrison A, Pearce L, Lang C, O’Leary J (1996) Understanding vacation destination choice through travel motivation and activities. J Vacation Mark 2:109–122Google Scholar
  32. Oppermann M (1995) Travel life cycle. Ann Tourism Res 22:535–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oppermann M (1997) First-time and repeat visitors to New Zealand. Tourism Manage 18:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Papatheodorou A (2001) Why people travel to different places? Ann Tourism Res 28:164–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pollak R (1969) Modeling conditional demand functions and consumption theory. Q J Econ 83:60–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pollak R (1971) Conditional demand functions and the implications of separable utility. South Econ J 37:423–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saarinen J (2006) Traditions of sustainability in tourism studies. Ann Tourism Res 33:1121–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Seaton A, Palmer C (1997) Understanding VFR tourism behavior: the first five years of the United Kingdom tourism survey. Tourism Manage 18:345–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Song H, Witt S (2000) Tourism demand modeling and forecasting: modern econometric approaches. Pergarmon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Swarbrooke J, Horner S (2001) Consumer behavior in tourism. Butterworth Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. Sung H, Morrison A, Hong G, O'Leary J (2001) The effects of household and trip characteristics on trip types: A consumer behavioral approach for segmenting the US domestic leisure travel market. J Hospitality Tourism Res 25:46–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Witt S, Witt C (1995) Forecasting tourism demand: A review of empirical research. Int J Forecast 11:447–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • António Gomes de Menezes
    • 1
  • José Cabral Vieira
    • 1
  • Ana Isabel Moniz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Economics and BusinessUniversity of the Azores and CEEAplAPonta DelgadaPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Economics and ManagementUniversity of the AzoresPonta DelgadaPortugal

Personalised recommendations