A Meta-analytic Comparison of Regional Output Multipliers at Different Spatial Levels: Economic Impacts of Tourism

  • Eveline S. van Leeuwen
  • Peter Nijkamp
  • Piet Rietveld


On a local (town) scale, tourism is more and more being regarded as a possible instrument to change the future. With decreasing employment in agriculture, tourism is often seen as a new activity in the rural economy, generating employment and income and at the same time embracing local tradition and (landscape) qualities.

Over the last decades, tourism has become a major activity in our society and an increasingly important sector in terms of economic development (Giaoutzi and Nijkamp 2006). Higher incomes and a greater amount of leisure time, together with improved transport systems have resulted in a growing flow of tourists, travelling more frequently and over longer distances. According to Pearce (1981), the socio-economic effects of tourism are very diverse. When focusing on small and medium-sized towns, important effects are regional development, diversification of the economy and employment opportunities. Because tourism also addresses more rural and peripheral...


Linear Regression Model Decision Attribute Economic Base Tourism Sector Geographic Entity 
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Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eveline S. van Leeuwen
    • 1
  • Peter Nijkamp
    • 2
  • Piet Rietveld
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Department of Spatial EconomicsVU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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