Data Set and Descriptive Analysis
The subsequent empirical analyses on employment, productivity, and persistence effects of innovation activities are mainly based on the Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP). This chapter first presents some general background information on the data set including the survey methodology, response rates, and the information collected. It then provides the basic definitions of several innovation indicators which will be applied in the subsequent empirical analyses. The knowledge about the firms can be enriched by merging the MIP with other data sets. Therefore, a short description of the information used from other data sources follows. The chapter concludes by portraying the innovation activities of German firms at the aggregate level over the last 10 years using various input- and output-oriented innovation indicators.
KeywordsService Sector Process Innovation Product Innovation Innovation Activity Innovation Behaviour
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- 9.The first two waves in the industry sector already included some selected service industries. Detailed information on the first wave can be found in Harhoff and Licht (1994). A description of the MIP can also be found in Janz, Ebling, Gottschalk, and Niggemann (2001) or Janz, Ebling, Gottschalk, and Peters (2002).Google Scholar
- 15.In order to reduce costs and to shorten the field phase, a fax survey was conducted in 2004. However, this experiment was only partially successful and will not be followed up. For more details, see Aschhoff, Rammer, Peters, and Schmidt (2005).Google Scholar
- 17.See Stoneman (1983) or Brockhoff (1998) for a more detailed discussion of innovations in a narrow and broad sense.Google Scholar
- 19.See, for instance, Rogers (1995) for a closer look at theories explaining the diffusion of innovations.Google Scholar
- 20.Some authors further subdivide this process, such as Maidique (1980), who distinguishes between recognition, invention, development, implementation, and diffusion.Google Scholar
- 21.For a more detailed discussion about the boundaries and interrelationships between invention and innovations, the drawbacks of linear models and alternative models including feedback effects between the different stages, see Schumpeter (1947), Kline (1985), or Grupp (1997) and the references cited therein.Google Scholar
- 22.The third edition of the Oslo Manual extended the definition of innovation: In addition to technological innovations, new marketing and organisational methods are now included (see OECD and Eurostat, 2005). However, the new definition was first applied in the 2005 survey (CIS 4) while this study uses data from the 1993 to 2004 surveys only.Google Scholar
- 25.This definition of R&D in the Oslo Manual corresponds to that given in the Frascati Manual, on which the national R&D surveys are based (see OECD, 2002).Google Scholar
- 29.For more details see Rammer, Aschhoff, Doherr, Peters, and Schmidt (2005) or Rammer, Peters et al. (2005).Google Scholar