Indonesia towards Decentralization and Democracy

  • Deddy T. Tikson


Indonesia is the largest South East Asian Country, which gained independence from Japanese colonial rule on 17 August 1945, after more than 300 years of Dutch colonialism. Total independence was obtained in December 1949, after the war against the Netherlands, who tried to regain its colonial power. This ethnic Malayan dominated country covers of an area of 1,919,440 sq. km, which is composed of 1,826,440 sq. km of land and 93,000 sq. km of water. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the estimated total population in 2006 was 245.453 million with a 1.41% growth rate. It is bounded by Singapore and Malaysia to the north and Australia to the South, and composed of 17,508 islands, 6,000 of which are uninhabited. Admistratively, Indonesia is divided into 34 provinces and 410 “regencies” (kabupaten), which are comparable to municipalities. The term “regency” is adopted from the Dutch colonial rule, when the local leaders were appointed by the Monarch as “regents.” In addition, 98 cities (kota) represent the urban areas, which are the governmental status comparable to kabupaten. The capital Jakarta is regarded as a special city/province within the governmental system, headed by a Governor and composed of five kota, each headed by a mayor. The province of Yogyakarta (in central Java) and Aceh (in far north Sumatra) are regarded as special provinces as a cultural and religious arrangement. It reflects the complex socio-cultural composition of the society, associated with the colonial past and adherence to Islam.


Local Government Civil Society Central Government Comparative International Development Local Election 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Diamond L (1994) Introduction: Political Culture and Democracy. In: Diamond L (ed) Political Culture and Democracy in Developing Countries. Lynne Rienner Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Jaya WK, Dick H (2001) The Latest Crisis of Regional Autonomy in Historical Perspective. In: Llyod G, Smith S (eds) Indonesia Today. Challenges and History. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, SinagporeGoogle Scholar
  3. Kwik KG (1998) Konsep dan Program PDI dalam Bidang Ekonomi. Unpublished PaperGoogle Scholar
  4. Mann M (1986) The Sources of Social Power. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. Marsh RM (1988) Sociological Explanations of Economic Growth. Studies in Comparative International Development 23: 41–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. O’Donnell G (1978) Reflections on the Pattern of Change in the Bureaucratic-Authoritarian State. Latin American Review 8: 3–38Google Scholar
  7. Pabottingi M (2001) Demokrasi: Dimana Berkiprah, Dimana Sekarat-Menyingkap Sumber Tiadanya Tata Pemerintahan yang Baik di Indo-nesia. In: Membangun Kemitraan antara Pemerintah dan Masyarakat Madani untuk Mewujudkan Tata Pemerintafun yang Baik. Proceeding, Jakarta: Bappenas, October 10Google Scholar
  8. Prabowo D (2001) Perspektif Otonomi Daerah. In: Usman W et al. Pemhangunan Pertanian di Era Otonomi Daerah, LP2KP Pustaka Karya, Yogyakarta. Revised EditionGoogle Scholar
  9. Robison R (1989) Structure of Power and the Industrialization Process in Southeast Asia. Journal of Contemporary Asia 19: 371–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Stepan A (1978) The State and Society: Peru in Comparative Perspective. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  11. Turner M, Hulme D (1997) Governance, Administration and Development. McMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Turner BS (1978) Marx and the End of Orientalism. Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Woshinky OH (1995) Culture and Politics. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deddy T. Tikson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public Administration and Dean of the Faculty of Social and Political SciencesHasanuddin UniversityHasanuddin

Personalised recommendations