Drivers of Change and Energy Models

Part of the Sustainability and Innovation book series (SUSTAINABILITY)


Primary energy demand has been continuously growing over the last century and is expected to grow further.1 A secure supply of energy is a condition for stability and growth of any economy (Ayres et al. 2003). Energy, as it occurs in nature, is rarely suited to provide energy services; most forms of energy need to be transformed first. Further, energy is not always found or cannot be transformed cost-effectively close to demand. As a result, a large international industry that extracts, transports, transforms, and supplies energy has developed.


Energy System Energy Model Climate Policy Energy Industry Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 
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© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 2008

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