Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)


Population Growth Rate Total Fertility Rate Nomic Growth Constant Population Size Ageing Index 
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  1. 1.
    For example, see OECD (2005, 2003, 1998a), IMF (2004) and Disney (1996).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Groömling (2004), Rump (2000).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Other early works include Meade (1961) and Phelps (1961).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    The Post-Keynesian growth theory (Harrod (1939), Domar (1946)) analyses economic growth with regards to the demand side. This theory assumes that investment will create capacities-the main question is then if demand is high enough to use all of the capacities. This strand of literature was criticized as it does not explain what determines economic growth-and therefore for many is not part of economic growth theories.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    For example, see Börsch-Supan et al. (2004), Futagami and Nakajima (2001), Miles (1999), Kosai et al. (1998) and Jahnke (1990).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Solow (2000), p. ix.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    United Nations (1956). For example, in Germany the number of people aged 65 or over is 16.4 percent (in 2000), see United Nations (2002), 244.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    The following figures are taken from the United Nations (2002), 244–245 (Germany), 458–459 (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), 462–463 (United States of America), unless stated otherwise.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    The impact of migration on the age structure of the population will not be discussed here. Throughout the thesis we assume a closed population, i.e. one which is not affected by migration. For the effect of migration on population, see e.g. United Nations (2000).Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    For a description on the demographic transition, see United Nations (2002), 5.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    OECD_(2005), 7.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    The total fertility rate dropped from 1.56 (1989) to 0.83 (1992) to 0.77 (1994) in former East Germany. See BMFSFJ (2003), 71, table 13.Google Scholar

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© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 2007

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