Temperature Control of a Smelting Plant

  • Tomi Palovaara
  • Matti Sipola
Part of the Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing book series (STUDFUZZ, volume 71)


The temperature control is an important issue in the steel mill. Tighter quality requirements and the aim of increasing production call for better control of the temperatures in different process stages in a smelting plant.


Continuous Casting Target Temperature Casting Speed Casting Machine Schedule Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Austin, P. R., Camplin, J. M., Herbertson, J., Taggart, I. J. (1992): Mathematical modelling of thermal stratification and drainage of steel ladles. ISIJ International 32 (2), 196–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, P. R., O’Rourke, S. L., He, Q. L., Rex, A. J. (1992): Thermal modelling of steel ladles. In: 75th Steelmaking Conference Proceedings. The Iron and Steel Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 317–323Google Scholar
  3. Barber, B., Normanton, A., Short, M., Patel, A. (1997–1998): Temperature control of liquid steel for casting. Advanced Steel 131–135Google Scholar
  4. Barber, B., Watson, G., Bowden, L. (1994): Optimum ladle design for heat retention during continuous casting. Ironmaking and Steelmaking 21 (2) 150–153Google Scholar
  5. Castillejos, A. H., Acosta, F. A., Betancourt, A., Flores, A., Pedroza, M. A., Herrera, M. A., Sepulveda, R. (1997): On-line modeling for temperature control of ladles and steel during continuous thin slab casting. Iron and Steelmaker 24 (7), 53–63Google Scholar
  6. Gaston, A., Medina, M. (1997): Thermal modeling of casting ladles: high-alumina, dolomite, magnesite and magnasia-graphite refractories. Iron and Steelmaker 24 (1), 29–35Google Scholar
  7. Grip, C.-E. (1994): Measurement of ladle wall temperature to improve control of steel temperature in BOF plant. In: 77th Steelmaking Conference Proceedings. The Iron and Steel Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 103–115Google Scholar
  8. Herbert, A., Thomdike, M. J., Fawkes, G. (1985): Production of high-quality continuously cast slabs for hotrolled coil and welded-tube application. Ironmaking and Steelmaking 12 (1), 30–37Google Scholar
  9. Hlinka, J. W., Miller, T. W. (1970): Temperature loss in liquid steel-refractory systems. Iron and Steel Engineer 8 123–133Google Scholar
  10. Koo, Y. S., Kang, T., Lee, I. R., Shin, Y. K., Gal, H. Y. (1989): Thermal cycle model of ladle for steel temperature control in melt shop and its application. In: 72nd Steelmaking Conference Proceedings. The Iron and Steel Society, Warrendale, PA, 1989, pp. 415–421Google Scholar
  11. Mucciardi, F., Grandillo, A. (1987): Thermal cycling of ladles at Stelco McMaster works. Iron and Steel Engineer 12, 24–30Google Scholar
  12. Olika, B., Björkman, B. (1993): Prediction of steel temperature in ladle through time/temperature simulation. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 22, 213–219Google Scholar
  13. Omotani, M. A., Heaslip, L. J., McLean, A. (1983): Ladle temperature control during continuous casting. Iron and Steelmaker 10 (10), 29–35Google Scholar
  14. Perkins, A., Robertson, T., Smith, D. (1986): Improvements to liquid steel temperature control in the ladle and tundish. Fachberichte Hüttenpraxis Metallweiterverarbeitung 24 (8), 649–656Google Scholar
  15. Saha, J. K., Ajmani, S. K., Chatterjee, A. (1991): Mathematical model for determining preheating schedule of dolomite ladles in melt shops. Ironmaking and Steelmaking 18 (6), 417–422Google Scholar
  16. Short, M. W., Barber, B., Normanton, A. S., Patrick, B., York, R. A. (1997): Temperature prediction and control during continuous casting. In: 56th Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The Iron & Steel Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 655–659Google Scholar
  17. Snoeijer, A. B., Boer, R., Hartwig, M., Mostert, R., Böhmer, T. J. M. (1997): Temperature control at BOS no. 2 of Hoogovens Staal. Hoogovens Research & Development 199697, pp. 15–20Google Scholar
  18. Szekely, J., Lee, R. G. (1968): The effect of slag thickness on heat loss from ladles holding molten steel. Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME 242, 961–965Google Scholar
  19. Tomazin, C. E., Upton, E. A., Wallis, R. A. (1986): The effect of ladle refractories and practices on steel temperature control. Iron and Steelmaker 13 (6), 28–34Google Scholar
  20. Widdowson, R. (1981): Ladle composition and temperature control. Ironmaking and Steelmaking 8 (5), 194–200Google Scholar
  21. Zoryk, A., Reid, P. M. (1993): On-line liquid steel temperature control. Iron and Steelmaker 20 (6), 21–27Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomi Palovaara
    • 1
  • Matti Sipola
    • 1
  1. 1.Rautaruukki Steel, Primary ProductsRaaheFinland

Personalised recommendations