Estimation of Target Values for Grade Changes in Paper Machine

  • Pauli Viljamaa
  • Heikki Peltonen
  • Heikki N. Koivo
Part of the Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing book series (STUDFUZZ, volume 71)


Paper making is a continuous process, where up to 10 m wide paper web is produced and fed through a paper machine (Fig. 1) at the speed up to 1800 m/min. The paper machine may produce paper 300,000 tons per year stopping only for short annual maintenance breaks. These numbers are approximate but give an idea how large-scale system a paper machine is.


Membership Function Fuzzy System Rule Base Grade Change Paper Mill 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Babuska, R. (1998): Fuzzy modeling for control. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Boston Driankov, D., Hellendoom, H., Reinfrank, M. (1996): An introduction to fuzzy control. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2nd revised editionGoogle Scholar
  2. Gupta, M.M., Qi, J. (1991): Design of fuzzy logic controllers based on generalized T-operators. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 40, 473–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jager, R. (1995): fuzzy logic in control. PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit Delft Lindskog, P. ( 1996 ): Methods, algorithms and tools for system identification based on prior knowledge. PhD thesis, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.Google Scholar
  4. Makkonen, A., Rantanen R., Kaukovirta, A., Koivisto, H., Lieslehto, J., Jussila, T., Koivo, H.N., Huhtelin, T. (1994): The paper machine benchmark for control systems. In: Control Systems 94 Conference. STFI, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 219–225Google Scholar
  5. Menani, S., Koivo, H.N. Huhtelin, T., Kuusisto R. (1998): Dynamic modelling of paper machine from grade change data. In: Control Systems ‘88 Proceedings. Finnish Society of Automation, Porvoo, Finland, pp. 79–86Google Scholar
  6. Ranta, J., 011us, M., Leppänen, A. (1992): Information technology and structural change in the paper and pulp industry. Computers in Industry 20, 255–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sanders, F.F. (1998): Advanced control success depends on operator confidence. InTech 45 (9), 48–51.Google Scholar
  8. Viitamäki, P. (1997): Modeling of paper machine grade changes: A multiple model approach. In: AIChE 1997 Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. Viljamaa, P. (1996): Optimization of rule base for fuzzy logic system. In: Proceedings of TOOLMET’96 Symposium — Tool Environments and Development Methods for Intelligent Systems. University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, pp. 159–164Google Scholar
  10. Viljamaa, P. (2000): Fuzzy gain scheduling and tuning of multivariable fuzzy control—Methods of fuzzy computing in control systems. PhD. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Viljamaa, P. Koivo, H.N. (1998): Comparison of minimum and product operators in fuzzy systems with more than two inputs. In: IASTED Int. Conf. on Control and Applications CA’98, Honolulu, HI, USA, pp. 69–73Google Scholar
  12. Viljamaa, P., Peltonen H., Koivo, H.N. (2000): Target value computing in paper machine grade changes by fuzzy system. In: The 9th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems FUZZ-IEEE 2000, San Antonio, TX, USA, pp. 105–109Google Scholar
  13. Zeng, X.-J., Singh, M.G. (1996): Approximation accuracy analysis of fuzzy systems as function approximators. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems 4 (1), 44–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pauli Viljamaa
    • 1
  • Heikki Peltonen
    • 2
  • Heikki N. Koivo
    • 3
  1. 1.Automation and Control InstituteTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  2. 2.Process ResearchLappeenrantaFinland
  3. 3.Control Engineering LaboratoryHelsinki University of Technology, TKKFinland

Personalised recommendations