Newell and Simon [1961; 1972] invented means-ends analysis during their work on the General Problem Solver (GPs), back in the early days of artificial intelligence. Their technique combined goal-directed reasoning with forward chaining from the initial state. The authors of later systems [Fikes and Nilsson, 1971; Warren, 1974; Tate, 1977] gradually abandoned forward search and began to rely exclusively on backward chaining.
KeywordsSearch Space Inference Rule Goal Statement Functional Type Decision Point
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