Social Standards and Their Impact on Exports: Evidence from the Textiles and Ready-Made Garments Sector in Egypt

  • Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim
  • Ulrike Grote
Part of the Sustainability and Innovation book series (SUSTAINABILITY)


Labor Standard World Trade Organization Child Labor Export Performance Export Share 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adamy W (1994) International trade and social standards. Intereconomics 29:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson K (1995) The entwining of trade policy with environmental and labour standards. In: Martin W, Winters LA (eds) The Uruguay round and the developing economies. World Bank Discussion Paper No 307, World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson K (1996) Social policy dimensions of economic integration: environmental and labour standards. NBER Working Paper No 5702Google Scholar
  4. Berlin K, Lang JM (1993) Trade and the environment. The Washington Quarterly 16:35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhagwati J (1995) Trade liberalization and fair trade demands: addressing the environmental and labour standards issues. World Economy 18:745–59Google Scholar
  6. Bhattarcharya D (2002) International trade, social labelling and developing countries: the case of Bangladesh’s garments export and use of child labor centre for policy dialogue. DhakaGoogle Scholar
  7. Bullard N (2001) Social standards in the international trade. Report prepared for the Deutscher Bundestag Commission of Enquiry Globalization of the World Economy — Challenges and Answers, Thailand, Available on the website: http://focusweborgGoogle Scholar
  8. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, US Department of State (2001) 2000 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor-US Department of State (2000) 1999 country reports on human rights practices. February 25, 2000. Scholar
  10. Dessing M (1997) The social clause and sustainable development. BRIDGES Discussion Papers Vol 1, No 1, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  11. Eglin R (2001) Keeping the t in the WTO: where to next on environment and labor standards? Journal of Economics and Finance 12: 173–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghoneim AF (2000) Antidumping under the GATT and the European Union rules: prospects for the Egyptian European partnership agreement. In: Nassar H, Naeim A (eds) The Egyptian exports and the challenges of the twenty first century. Center of Economic and Financial Research and Studies, Cairo, pp 184–248Google Scholar
  13. Golub SS (1997) International labor standards and international trade. IMF Working Paper No WP/97/37, IMF, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamal GM, Paul-Majumder P, Rahman MK (1993) Economically active children in Bangladesh. Unpublished report, Associates for Community and Population Research, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  15. Krugman P, Lawrence R (1993) Trade, jobs and wages. NBER Working Paper No 4478Google Scholar
  16. Lee E (1997) Globalization and labour standards: a review of issues. International Labour Review 2: 173–189Google Scholar
  17. Maskus KE (1997) Should core labor standards be imposed through international trade policy. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No 1817, Washington DC: World BankGoogle Scholar
  18. Maskus KE, Wilson J (2000) Quantifying the impact of technical barriers to trade: a review of past attempts and the new policy context. Paper presented at the World Bank Workshop on Quantifying the Trade Effect of Standards and Technical Barriers: Is it Possible?, April 27, 2000Google Scholar
  19. McCulloch N, Winters, LA, Cirera X (2002) Trade liberalization and poverty: a handbook. Center for Economic Policy Research/ United Kingdom Department for International Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Panagariya A (2000) Trade-labor link: a post-Seattle analysis mimeo. University of Maryland, Scholar
  21. Polaski S (2003a) Trade and labor standards: a strategy for developing countries. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Scholar
  22. Polaski S (2003b), Labour Standards: Why Happy Workers are Good for Growth, South China Morning Post, 20 January, 2003Google Scholar
  23. Stephenson SM (1997) Standards and conformity assessment as nontariff barriers to trade. World Bank Policy Research Paper No 1826, Washington DC: World BankGoogle Scholar
  24. Tallontire A, Blowfield ME (2000) Will the WTO prevent the growth of ethical trade? Implications of potential changes to WTO rules for environmental and social standards in the forest sector. Journal of International Development 12:571–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Trebilcock JD (1999) Trade labour standards and development: challenges for research from the policy consensus. manuscriptGoogle Scholar
  26. Trebilcock JD (2002) Trade policy and labour standards mimeo. University of Toronto, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  27. Raynauld A, Vidal JP (1998) Labor standards and international competitiveness: a comparative analysis of developing and developed countries. Edward Elgar Publishing, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodrik D (1997) Has globalization gone too far? Institute for International Economics, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Van Beers C (1998) Labour standards and trade flows of OECD countries. World Economy 1: 57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. World Bank (2001) Global economic prospects and the developing countries. World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  31. WTO (2000), European Union trade policy review. World Trade Organization First Press Release, Press/TPBR/137, http://wwww.toorg/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp137_ehtmlGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim
    • 1
  • Ulrike Grote
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Economic and Political ScienceCairo UniversityCairo
  2. 2.Center for Development Research (ZEF)University of BonnBonn

Personalised recommendations