Advertisement

Sleepiness, countermeasures and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

  • Christopher A. Alford

Abstract

There are several factors that increase the risk of driver sleepiness and result in increased accident risk. Modern vehicle design enables the driver to travel at high speeds and for long distances in a comfortable and often sleep promoting driving environment. Recent decades have seen an increase in shift work and apparent trends for reduced sleep length, which combine to increase driving risk, particularly with night driving. The young appear more vulnerable to the effects of reduced sleep, night driving and driving for long periods. Sleep related vehicle accidents represent a high proportion of vehicle accidents with the young and truck drivers standing out as vulnerable groups. People appear to be relatively poor predictors of imminent sleep onset so that driver warning systems would provide a valuable countermeasure, but unfortunately reliable commercial systems are still some years away. Future warning systems will need to account for the marked individual differences seen in levels of driver sleepiness, impaired performance and associated risk levels. Driver education programmes are required warning of the increased risks of driver sleepiness associated with extended waking, too little sleep, and driving during the circadian low period. Drivers should also be made aware of strategies helping to maximise sleep and optimise arousal which are of particular use for night driving and shift work. These could include the use of appropriate hypnotics to maximise available sleep, or melatonin and light exposure to enhance phase shifting or improve sleep and waking scheduling. Practical countermeasures used by drivers that have been assessed and appear beneficial include the use of brief naps and caffeine.

Keywords

Motor Vehicle Accident Sleep Inertia Night Driving KDYH EHHQ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lauber JK, Kayten PJ (1988) Sleepiness, circadian dysrhythmia, and fatigue in transportation system accidents. Sleep: J Sleep Res & Sleep Medicine 11: 503–512.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leger D (1994) The cost of sleep-related accidents: a report for the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research.[see comment]. Sleep 17: 84–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Land Speed Record. Available at: http://www.speedace.info/land_speed_record_history. htm (accessed 11 July 2008).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    MacLean AW, Davies DR, Thiele K (2003) The hazards and prevention of driving while sleepy. Sleep Med Rev 7: 507–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takahashi Y (1979) Growth hormone sectretion related to the sleep and waking rhythm. In: R Drucker-Colin, M Shkurovich, MB Sterman (ed) The functions of sleep. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stickgold R (2005) Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature 437: 1272–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tononi G, Cirelli C (2006) Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis. Sleep Med Rev 10: 49–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dinges DF (2006) The state of sleep deprivation: From functional biology to functional consequences. Sleep Med Rev 10: 303–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Staying Awake Record. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Randy_Gardner_(record_holder) (accessed 11 July 2008).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Banks S, Dinges DF (2007) Behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep restriction. J Clin Sleep Med 3: 519–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kripke DF, Garfinkel L, Wingard DL, Klauber MR, Marler MR (2002) Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59: 131–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Banks S, Catcheside P, Lack LC, Grunstein RR, McEvoy RD (2005) The maintenance of wakefulness test and driving simulator performance. Sleep 28: 1381–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mitler MM, Gujavarty KS, Sampson MG, Browman CP (1982) Multiple daytime nap approaches to evaluating the sleepy patient. Sleep 5 Supplement 2: S119–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bonnet MH, Arand DL (1995) We are chronically sleep deprived. Sleep 18: 908–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carskadon MA, Dement WC, Mitler MM, Roth T, Westbrook PR, Keenan S (1986) Guidelines for the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT): a standard measure of sleepiness. Sleep 9: 519–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lesku JA, Roth TC, Rattenborg NC, Amlaner CJ, Lima SL (2008) Phylogenetics and the correlates of mammalian sleep: A reappraisal. Sleep Med Rev 12: 229–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zepelin H, Rechtschaffen A (1974) Mammalian sleep, longevity, and energy metabolism. Brain Behav Evol 10: 425–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patrick G, Gilbert J (1896) On the effects of loss of sleep. Psychol Rev 3: 469–483.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bills AG (1931) Blocking: A New Principle of Mental Fatigue. Am J Psychol 43: 230–245.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilkinson RT (1959) Rest pauses in a task affected by lack of sleep. Ergonomics 2: 373–380.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilkinson RT (1965) Sleep deprivation. In: Edholm OG, Bachrach AL (eds) The physiology of human survival. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Williams HL, Lubin A, Goodnow JJ (1959) Impaired performance with acute sleep loss. Psychol Monogr 73: 26.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carskadon MA, Dement WC (1979) Effects of total sleep loss on sleep tendency. Percept Mot Skills 48: 495–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naitoh P (1976) Sleep deprivation in human subjects: A reappraisal. Waking and Sleeping 1: 53–60.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pilcher JJ, Huffcutt AI (1996) Effects of sleep deprivation on performance: a meta-analysis. Sleep 19: 318–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van Dongen HP, Maislin G, Mullington JM, Dinges DF (2003) The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep 26: 117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kleitman N, Engelmann TG (1953) Sleep Characteristics of Infants. J Appl Physiol 6: 269–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kantermann T, Juda M, Merrow M, Roenneberg T (2007) The human circadian clock’s seasonal adjustment is disrupted by daylight saving time. Curr Biol 17: 1996–2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Webb WB (1982) Sleep, biological rhythms, performance research: An introduction. In: Webb WB (ed) Biological rhythms, sleep, and performance. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp 1–25.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Doghramji K (2007) Melatonin and its receptors: A new class of sleep-promoting agents. J Clin Sleep Med 3: S17–S23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saper CB, Lu J, Chou TC, Gooley J (2005) The hypothalamic integrator for circadian rhythms. Trends Neurosci 28: 152–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Aston-Jones G (2005) Brain structures and receptors involved in alertness. Sleep Med 6: S3–S7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Beersma DGM (1998) Models of Human Sleep Regulation. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2: 31–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Borbely AA (1982) A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol 1: 195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kilduff TS, Kushida CA (1999) Circadian regulation of sleep. In: Chokroverty S (ed) Sleep disorders medicine: basic science, technical considerations, and clinical aspects. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA, pp 135–145.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Colquhoun P (1982) Biological rhythms and performance. In: Webb WB (ed) Biological rhythms, sleep, and performance. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp 59–86.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kleitman N (1939/1963) Sleep and wakefulness. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Horne JA, Reyner LA (1995) Driver sleepiness. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 23–29.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gillberg M (1995) Sleepiness and its relation to the length, content, and continuity of sleep. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 37–40.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kecklund G, Akerstedt T (1995) Effects of timing of shifts on sleepiness and sleep duration. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 47–50.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tilley AJ, Wilkinson RT, Drud M (1981) Night and day shifts compared in terms of the quality and quantity of sleep recorded in the home and performance measured at work: A pilot study. In: Reinberg A, Vieux N, Andlauer P (eds) Night and shift work: biological and social aspects. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 187–196.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harma M, Sallinen M, Ranta R, Mutanen P, Muller K (2002) The effect of an irregular shift system on sleepiness at work in train drivers and railway traffic controllers. J Sleep Res 11: 141–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dorrian J, Hussey F, Dawson D (2007) Train driving efficiency and safety: Examining the cost of fatigue. J Sleep Res 16: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rosa RR (1995) Extended workshifts and excessive fatigue. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 51–56.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Connor J, Norton R, Ameratunga S, Robinson E, Wigmore B, Jackson R (2001) Prevalence of driver sleepiness in a random population-based sample of car driving. Sleep 24: 688–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lal SKL, Craig A (2001) A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue. Biol Psychol 55: 173–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gillberg M, Kecklund G, Akerstedt T (1996) Sleepiness and performance of professional drivers in a truck simulator — Comparisons between day and night driving. J Sleep Res 5: 12–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Drake CL, Roehrs T, Richardson G, Walsh JK, Roth T (2004) Shift work sleep disorder: Prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 27: 1453–1462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Smolensky MH (1981) The chronoepidemiology of occupational health and shift work. In: Reinberg A, Vieux N, Andlauer P (eds) Night and shift work: biological and social aspects. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 51–65.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harma M (1995) Sleepiness and shiftwork: Individual differences. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 57–61.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ingre M, Akerstedt T, Peters B, Anund A, Kecklund G (2006) Subjective sleepiness, simulated driving performance and blink duration: Examining individual differences. J Sleep Res 15: 47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Galliaud E, Taillard J, Sagaspe P, Valtat C, Bioulac B, Philip P (2008) Sharp and sleepy: Evidence for dissociation between sleep pressure and nocturnal performance. J Sleep Res 17: 11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Philip P, Taillard J, Quera-Salva MA, Bioulac B, Akerstedt T (1999) Simple reaction time, duration of driving and sleep deprivation in young versus old automobile drivers. J Sleep Res 8: 9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Akerstedt T, Kecklund G (2001) Age, gender and early morning highway accidents. J Sleep Res 10: 105–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Philip P, Taillard J, Sagaspe P, Valtat C, Sanchez-Ortuno M, Moore N, Charles A, Bioulac B (2004) Age, performance and sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res 13: 105–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Alford C, Meyer F (2002) Comparative effects of alcohol and extended waking on mood and driving related skills. Journal of Psychopharmacology, Supplement 16: A56.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dinges DF (1995) An overview of sleepiness and accidents. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 4–14.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Philip P, Akerstedt T (2006) Transport and industrial safety, how are they affected by sleepiness and sleep restriction? Sleep Med Rev 10: 347–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Parsons M (1986) Fits and other causes of loss of consciousness while driving. Q J Med 58: 295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Maycock G (1996) Sleepiness and driving: The experience of UK car drivers. J Sleep Res 5: 229–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Radun I, Summala H (2004) Sleep-related fatal vehicle accidents: Characteristics of decisions made by multidisciplinary investigation teams. Sleep 27: 224–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Connor J, Norton R, Ameratunga S, Robinson E, Civil I, Dunn R, Bailey J, Jackson R (2002) Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: Population based case control study. Br Med J 324: 1125–1128.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kaplan KA, Itoi A, Dement WC (2007) Awareness of sleepiness and ability to predict sleep onset: Can drivers avoid falling asleep at the wheel? Sleep Med 9: 71–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hakkanen H, Summala H (2000) Sleepiness at work among commercial truck drivers. Sleep 23: 49–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Powell NB, Schechtman KB, Riley RW, Guilleminault C, Chiang RP-, Weaver EM (2007) Sleepy driver near-misses may predict accident risks. Sleep 30: 331–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Caton R (1877) Interim report on investigation of the electric currents of the brain. Br Med J, Supplement 1: 62.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (1968) A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects.: 53.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Alford C, Rombaut N, Jones J, Foley S, Idzikowski C, Hindmarch I (1992) Acute effects of hydroxyzine on nocturnal sleep and sleep tendency the following day: A C-EEG study. Human Psychopharmacology 7: 25–35.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ogilvie RD, Wilkinson RT (1988) Behavioral versus EEG-based monitoring of all-night sleep/wake patterns. Sleep 11: 139–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ogilvie RD, Wilkinson RT, Allison S (1989) The detection of sleep onset: Behavioral, physiological, and subjective convergence. Sleep 12: 458–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lemke M (1982) Correlation between EEG and driver’s actions during prolonged driving under monotonous conditions. Acc Anal Prevent 14: 7–17.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Torsvall L, Akerstedt T (1987) Sleepiness on the job: Continuously measured EEG changes in train drivers. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 66: 502–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Balkin TJ, Bliese PD, Belenky G, Sing H, Thorne DR, Thomas M, Redmond DP, Russo M, Wesensten NJ (2004) Comparative utility of instruments for monitoring sleepiness-related performance decrements in the operational environment. J Sleep Res 13: 219–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bastuji H, Garcia-Larrea L (1999) Evoked potentials as a tool for the investigation of human sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews 3: 23–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bastuji H, Perrin F, Garcia-Larrea L (2003) Event-related potentials during forced awakening: a tool for the study of acute sleep inertia. J Sleep Res 12: 189–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Murphy TI, Richard M, Masaki H, Segalowitz SJ (2006) The effect of sleepiness on performance monitoring: I know what I am doing, but do I care? J Sleep Res 15: 15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Duta M, Alford C, Wilson S, Tarassenko L (2004) Neural network analysis of the mastoid EEG for the assessment of vigilance. Int J Hum-Comput Interact 17: 171–195.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Poulton EC, Gregory RL (1952) Blinking during visual tracking. Q J Exp Psychol: 57–65.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    De Gennaro L, Devoto A, Lucidi F, Violani C (2005) Oculomotor changes are associated to daytime sleepiness in the multiple sleep latency test. J Sleep Res 14: 107–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Marzano C, Fratello F, Moroni F, Pellicciari MC, Curcio G, Ferrara M, Ferlazzo F, De Gennaro L (2007) Slow eye movements and subjective estimates of sleepiness predict EEG power changes during sleep deprivation. Sleep 30: 610–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ogilvie RD, McDonagh DM, Stone SN, Wilkinson RT (1988) Eye movements and the detection of sleep onset. Psychophysiol 25: 81–91.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hakkanen H, Summala H, Partinen M, Tiihonen M, Silvo J (1999) Blink duration as an indicator of driver sleepiness in professional bus drivers. Sleep 22: 798–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ingre M, Akerstedt T, Peters B, Anund A, Kecklund G (2006) Subjective sleepiness, simulated driving performance and blink duration: Examining individual differences. J Sleep Res 15: 47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Smart Eye. Available at: http://www.smarteye.se/ (accessed 12 July 2008).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Baulk SD, Reyner LA, Horne JA (2001) Driver sleepiness — Evaluation of reaction time measurement as a secondary task. Sleep 24: 695–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Franzen PL, Siegle GJ, Buysse DJ (2008) Relationships between affect, vigilance, and sleepiness following sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res 17: 34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Akerstedt T (1998) Sleepiness, Guest Editorial. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2: 1–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Horne JA, Baulk SD (2004) Awareness of sleepiness when driving. Psychophysiol 41: 161–165.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Caldwell JA, Caldwell JL, Schmidt RM (2008) Alertness management strategies for operational contexts. Sleep Med Rev 12: 257–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ingre M, Akerstedt T, Peters B, Anund A, Kecklund G, Pickles A (2006) Subjective sleepiness and accident risk avoiding the ecological fallacy. J Sleep Res 15: 142–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Johns M (1998) Rethinking the assessment of sleepiness. Sleep Med Rev 2: 3–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Williamson A, Chamberlain, T. (2005) Motor Accident Authority of New South Wales. Available at: http://www.maa.nsw.gov.au/getfile.aspx?Type = document&ID = 3206&ObjectType= 3&ObjectID = 587 (accessed 25 September 2005).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Anund A, Kecklund G, Peters B, Akerstedt T (2008) Driver sleepiness and individual differences in preferences for countermeasures. J Sleep Res 17: 16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Reyner LA, Horne JA (1998) Evaluation of “in-car” countermeasures to sleepiness: Cold air and radio. Sleep 21: 46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Landstrom U, Englund K, Nordstrom B, Astrom A (1999) Sound exposure as a measure against driver drowsiness. Ergonomics 42: 927–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    De Valck E, Cluydts R, Pirrera S (2004) Effect of cognitive arousal on sleep latency, somatic and cortical arousal following partial sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res 13: 295–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rosekind MR, Smith RM, Miller DL, Co EL, Gregory KB, Webbon LL, Gander PH, Lebacqz JV (1995) Alertness management: Strategic naps in operational settings. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 62–66.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Takahashi M (2003) The role of prescribed napping in sleep medicine. Sleep Med Rev 7: 227–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bruck D, Pisani DL (1999) The effects of sleep inertia on decision-making performance. J Sleep Res 8: 95–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jewett ME, Wyatt JK, Ritz-De Cecco A, Bir Khalsa S, Dijk D, Czeisler CA (1999) Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. J Sleep Res 8: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tassi P, Muzet A (2000) Sleep inertia. Sleep Med Rev 4: 341–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Reyner LA, Horne JA (1997) Suppression of sleepiness in drivers: Combination of caffeine with a short nap. Psychophysiol 34: 721–725.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Garbarino S, Mascialino, Penco MA, Squarcia S, De Carli F, Nobili L, Beelke M, Cuomo G, Ferrillo F (2004) Professional shift-work drivers who adopt prophylactic naps can reduce the risk of car accidents during night work. Sleep 27: 1295–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lewy A, Emens J, Jackman A, Yuhas K (2006) Circadian uses of melatonin in humans. Chronobiol Int 23: 403–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Skene DJ, Arendt J (2006) Human circadian rhythms: Physiological and therapeutic relevance of light and melatonin. Ann Clin Biochem 43: 344–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Brzezinski A, Vangel MG, Wurtman RJ, Norrie G, Zhdanova I, Ben-Shushan A, Ford I (2005) Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: A meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev 9: 41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lemoine P, Nir T, Laudon M, Zisapel N (2007) Prolonged-release melatonin improves sleep quality and morning alertness in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and has no withdrawal effects. J Sleep Res 16: 372–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bjorvatn B, Kecklund G, Akerstedt T (1999) Bright light treatment used for adaptation to night work and re-adaptation back to day life. A field study at an oil platform in the North Sea. J Sleep Res 8: 105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lowden A, Akerstedt T, Wibom R (2004) Suppression of sleepiness and melatonin by bright light exposure during breaks in night work. J Sleep Res 13: 37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Alford C, Wilson S (2008) Effects of hypnotics on sleep and quality of life in Insomnia. In: Verster J, Streiner D, Pandi-Parumal SR (eds) Sleep and quality of life in medical illness. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 49–62.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Neubauer DN (2007) The evolution and development of insomnia pharmacotherapies. J Clin Sleep Med, Supplement 3: S11–S15.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Walsh JK, Muehlbach MJ, Schweitzer PK (1995) Hypnotics and caffeine as countermeasures for shiftwork-related sleepiness and sleep disturbance. J Sleep Res, Supplement 4: 80–83.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Verster JC, Veldhuijzen DS, Volkerts ER (2004) Residual effects of sleep medication on driving ability. Sleep Med Rev 8: 309–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Roehrs T, Roth T (2008) Caffeine: Sleep and daytime sleepiness. Sleep Med Rev 12: 153–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Smith A, Sutherland D, Christopher G (2005) Effects of repeated doses of caffeine on mood and performance of alert and fatigued volunteers. J Psychopharm 19: 620–626.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    De Valck E, Cluydts R (2001) Slow-release caffeine as a countermeasure to driver sleepiness induced by partial sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res 10: 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sagaspe P, Taillard J, Chaumet G, Moore N, Bioulac B, Philip P (2007) Aging and nocturnal driving: Better with coffee or a nap? A randomized study. Sleep 30: 1808–1813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R (2001) The effects of Red Bull Energy Drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids 21: 139–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Horne JA, Reyner LA (2001) Beneficial effects of an “energy drink” given to sleepy drivers. Amino Acids 20: 83–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Alford C, Kerr J (2005) Caffeine improves driving performance at midnight but not at midday. Journal of Psychopharmacology, Supplement 19: A28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag/Switzerland 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher A. Alford
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology Department, Faculty of Health and Life SciencesUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

Personalised recommendations