Immune regulation in atherosclerosis and the hygiene hypothesis

  • Hafid Ait-Oufella
  • Alain Tedgui
  • Ziad Mallat
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)


Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall where both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to disease initiation and progression. The hygiene hypothesis implies that dysregulation of the immune response has led to increased susceptibility to immuno-inflammatory diseases. Recent studies established that subtypes of T cells, regulatory T cells, actively involved in the maintenance of immunological tolerance, inhibit the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we review the immune regulatory pathways of atherosclerosis and discuss the potential implication of pathogens and their associated molecular patterns in the regulation of the immuno-inflammatory response of atherosclerosis.


Treg Cell Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Hygiene Hypothesis Atherosclerotic Lesion Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hafid Ait-Oufella
    • 1
  • Alain Tedgui
    • 1
  • Ziad Mallat
    • 1
  1. 1.Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, INSERM and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de ParisHôpital Européen Georges PompidouParisFrance

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