Advertisement

Bacterial infections of the liver

  • Hilmar Wisplinghoff
  • Darryn L. Appleton
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)

Abstract

Bacterial infections of the liver can be categorised into three entities: acute bacterial hepatitis, bacterial liver abscesses and granulomatous liver disease caused by bacteria. A broad spectrum of bacteria has been implicated in different forms of hepatic infections, and a wide variety of systemic bacterial infections affect the liver during the course of infection. Clinical symptoms, causative pathogens and therapeutic approaches overlap widely. Most bacterial infections that affect the liver cause secondary hepatitis with only discrete clinical and laboratory findings. Standard diagnostic procedures including physical examination, imaging and microbiological cultures will usually be sufficient to detect and ascertain the bacterial causes of hepatitis. Therapy of bacterial infections of the liver usually includes antimicrobial chemotherapy according to standard guidelines for the underlying disease and the identified pathogen as well as additional invasive therapy which may be required for certain manifestations.

Keywords

Liver Abscess Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Hepatic Abscess Pyogenic Liver Abscess Miliary Tuberculosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Oschner A, DeBakey M, Murray S (1938) Pyogenic abscess of the liver. II. An analysis of fourty-seven cases with review of the literature. Am J Surg 59: 219–222Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seeto RK, Rockey DC (1996) Pyogenic liver abscess. Changes in etiology, management, and outcome. Medicine (Baltimore) 75: 99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gundling F, Secknus R, Abele-Horn M, Mossner J (2004) Pyogenic liver abscess. State-of-the-art situation for diagnosis and therapy. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 129: 1685–1688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee JJ, Kim HJ, Chung IJ, Kook H, Park MR, Kim CJ, Shin DH, Hwang TJ (2000) Ruptured Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess after high-dose cyclophosphamide for severe aplastic anemia. Am J Hematol 64: 218–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Okano H, Shiraki K, Inoue H, Kawakita T, Yamamoto N, Deguchi M, Sugimoto K, Sakai T, Ohmori S, Murata K et al (2002) Clinicopathological analysis of liver abscess in Japan. Int J Mol Med 10: 627–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Perez MJ, Carrillo JL, Montin IM, Castellano AD (2007) Liver abscess due to ileocecal perforation: a case report with literature review. Emerg Radiol 14: 241–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garcia-Arias MB, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Hoffer FA, Wang WC (2005) Pyogenic hepatic abscess after percutaneous liver biopsy in a patient with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27: 103–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen C, Chen PJ, Yang PM, Huang GT, Lai MY, Tsang YM, Chen DS (1997) Clinical and microbiological features of liver abscess after transarterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 92: 2257–2259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Theodoropoulou A, Roussomoustakaki M, Michalodimitrakis MN, Kanaki C, Kouroumalis EA (2002) Fatal hepatic abscess caused by a fish bone. Lancet 359: 977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stoica M, Saftoiu A, Gheonea DI, Dumitrescu D, Surlin V (2007) Pyogenic liver abscess caused by accidental ingestion of a wooden toothpick: role of preoperative imaging. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 16: 221–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang JH, Liu YC, Lee SS, Yen MY, Chen YS, Wang JH, Wann SR, Lin HH (1998) Primary liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan. Clin Infect Dis 26: 1434–1438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lodhi S, Sarwari AR, Muzammil M, Salam A, Smego RA (2004) Features distinguishing amoebic from pyogenic liver abscess: a review of 577 adult cases. Trop Med Int Health 9: 718–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scholing M, Schneeberger PM, van den Dries P, Drenth JP (2007) Clinical features of liver involvement in adult patients with listeriosis. Review of the literature. Infection 35: 212–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schaefer S, Arvand M, Gaertner B, Jilg W, Lafrenz M, Leitritz L, Modrow S, Mueller-Lantzsch N, Podbielski A, Roggendorf M et al (2006) Klinik und Erregerspektrum. In: H Mauch, A Podbielski, M Hermann, E Kniehl (eds) Qualitaetsstandards in der mikrobiologisch-infektiologischen Diagnostik (MiQ 25). Urban & Fischer, München und Jena, 5–11Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pitt HA, Zuidema GD (1975) Factors influencing mortality in the treatment of pyogenic hepatic abscess. Surg Gynecol Obstet 140: 228–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McDonald MI (1984) Pyogenic liver abscess: diagnosis, bacteriology and treatment. Eur J Clin Microbiol 3: 506–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McDonald MI, Corey GR, Gallis HA, Durack DT (1984) Single and multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. Natural history, diagnosis and treatment, with emphasis on percutaneous drainage. Medicine (Baltimore) 63: 291–302Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beckingham IJ, Krige JE (2001) ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas, and biliary system: Liver and pancreatic trauma. BMJ 322: 783–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hansen PS, Schonheyder HC (1998) Pyogenic hepatic abscess. A 10-year population-based retrospective study. APMIS 106: 396–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johannsen EC, Sifri CD, Madoff LC (2000) Pyogenic liver abscesses. Infect Dis Clin North Am 14: 547–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huang CJ, Pitt HA, Lipsett PA, Osterman FA Jr, Lillemoe KD, Cameron JL, Zuidema GD (1996) Pyogenic hepatic abscess. Changing trends over 42 years. Ann Surg 223: 600–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kurland JE, Brann OS (2004) Pyogenic and amebic liver abscesses. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 6: 273–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shiba H, Aoki H, Misawa T, Kobayashi S, Saito R, Yanaga K (2007) Pneumoperitoneum caused by ruptured gas-containing liver abscess. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 14: 210–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lederman ER, Crum NF (2005) Pyogenic liver abscess with a focus on Klebsiella pneumoniae as a primary pathogen: an emerging disease with unique clinical characteristics. Am J Gastroenterol 100: 322–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zenda T, Araki I, Hiraiwa Y, Miyayama S, Masunaga T, Takeda Y, Ueno T, Takeda R (1995) Septic pulmonary emboli secondary to pyogenic liver abscess in a diabetic patient. Intern Med 34: 42–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rahimian J, Wilson T, Oram V, Holzman RS (2004) Pyogenic liver abscess: recent trends in etiology and mortality. Clin Infect Dis 39: 1654–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee KT, Wong SR, Sheen PC (2001) Pyogenic liver abscess: an audit of 10 years’ experience and analysis of risk factors. Dig Surg 18: 459–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheng DL, Liu YC, Yen MY, Liu CY, Shi FW, Wang LS (1990) Pyogenic liver abscess: clinical manifestations and value of percutaneous catheter drainage treatment. J Formos Med Assoc 89: 571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wong TY, Chiu SI, So MK, Tsang MK, Lai ST, Tse KK, Io IY (2001) Septic metastatic endophthalmitis complicating Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in a non-diabetic Chinese man. Hong Kong Med J 7: 303–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cunningham SC, Napolitano LM (2004) Pyogenic liver abscess complicating biliary stricture due to chronic pancreatitis. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 5: 188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Alvarez JA, Gonzalez JJ, Baldonedo RF, Sanz L, Carreno G, Jorge JI (2001) Single and multiple pyogenic liver abscesses: etiology, clinical course, and outcome. Dig Surg 18: 283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mohsen AH, Green ST, Read RC, McKendrick MW (2002) Liver abscess in adults: ten years experience in a UK centre. QJM 95: 797–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wong WM, Wong BC, Hui CK, Ng M, Lai KC, Tso WK, Lam SK, Lai CL (2002) Pyogenic liver abscess: retrospective analysis of 80 cases over a 10-year period. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17: 1001–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Saini S (1997) Imaging of the hepatobiliary tract. N Engl J Med 336: 1889–1894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Barnes PF, De Cock KM, Reynolds TN, Ralls PW (1987) A comparison of amebic and pyogenic abscess of the liver. Medicine (Baltimore) 66: 472–483Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sugiyama M, Atomi Y (2002) Pyogenic hepatic abscess with biliary communication. Am J Surg 183: 205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Herbert DA, Fogel DA, Rothman J, Wilson S, Simmons F, Ruskin J (1982) Pyogenic liver abscesses: successful non-surgical therapy. Lancet 1: 134–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yeoh KG, Yap I, Wong ST, Wee A, Guan R, Kang JY (1997) Tropical liver abscess. Postgrad Med J 73: 89–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yu SC, Ho SS, Lau WY, Yeung DT, Yuen EH, Lee PS, Metreweli C (2004) Treatment of pyogenic liver abscess: prospective randomized comparison of catheter drainage and needle aspiration. Hepatology 39: 932–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bayraktar Y, Arslan S, Sivri B, Eryilmaz M, Akova M, Van Thiel DH, Kayhan B (1996) Percutaneous drainage of hepatic abscesses: therapy does not differ for those with identifiable biliary fistula. Hepatogastroenterology 43: 620–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Serste T, Bourgeois N, Vanden Eynden F, Coppens E, Deviere J, Le Moine O (2007) Endoscopic drainage of pyogenic liver abscesses with suspected biliary origin. Am J Gastroenterol 102: 1209–1215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tan YM, Chung AY, Chow PK, Cheow PC, Wong WK, Ooi LL, Soo KC (2005) An appraisal of surgical and percutaneous drainage for pyogenic liver abscesses larger than 5 cm. Ann Surg 241: 485–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Krige JE, Beckingham IJ (2001) ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas, and biliary system. BMJ 322: 537–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vogl TJ, Estifan F (2001) Pyogenic liver abscess: interventional versus surgical therapy: technique, results and indications. Rofo 173: 663–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Banikarim C, Chacko MR (2004) Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Adolesc Med Clin 15: 273–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Totan M, Yildiz G, Kalayci AG (2004) An uncommon presentation: chronic meningococcaemia associated with cholestatic hepatitis in a Turkish child. J Trop Pediatr 50: 372–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chou YP, Changchien CS, Chiu KW, Kuo CM, Kuo FY, Kuo CH (2006) Salmonellosis with liver abscess mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma in a diabetic and cirrhotic patient: a case report and review of the literature. Liver Int 26: 498–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mert A, Tabak F, Ozaras R, Ozturk R, Aki H, Aktuglu Y (2004) Typhoid fever as a rare cause of hepatic, splenic, and bone marrow granulomas. Intern Med 43: 436–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Branum GD, Tyson GS, Branum MA, Meyers WC (1990) Hepatic abscess. Changes in etiology, diagnosis, and management. Ann Surg 212: 655–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen SC, Yen CH, Tsao SM, Huang CC, Chen CC, Lee MC, Bell WR (2005) Comparison of pyogenic liver abscesses of biliary and cryptogenic origin. An eight-year analysis in a University Hospital. Swiss Med Wkly 135: 344–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chen SC, Wu WY, Yeh CH, Lai KC, Cheng KS, Jeng LB, Wang PH, Lin DB, Chen CC, Lee MC et al (2007) Comparison of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscesses. Am J Med Sci 334: 97–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fang CT, Lai SY, Yi WC, Hsueh PR, Liu KL, Chang SC (2007) Klebsiella pneumoniae genotype K1: an emerging pathogen that causes septic ocular or central nervous system complications from pyogenic liver abscess. Clin Infect Dis 45: 284–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lin JC, Siu LK, Fung CP, Yeh KM, Chang FY (2007) Nosocomial liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 45: 266–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Patel TR, Patel KN, Boyarsky AH (2006) Staphylococcal liver abscess and acute cholecystitis in a patient with Crohn’s disease receiving infliximab. J Gastrointest Surg 10: 105–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smith BM, Zyromski NJ, Allison DC (2007) Community-acquired methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus liver abscess requiring resection. Surgery 141: 110–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Matsutani T, Onda M, Miyashita M, Hao K, Yokoyama S, Matsuda T, Futami R, Takubo K, Sasajima K (2001) Liver abscesses associated with stromal tumour of the stomach in a young woman. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13: 1485–1489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mijnhout GS, Klinkenberg EC, Lycklama G, Linskens R, Meuwissen SG (2004) Sepsis and elevated liver enzymes in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease: think of portal vein thrombosis. Dig Liver Dis 36: 296–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hiura A, Kim EC, Ikehara T, Matsumura Y, Mishima K, Ishida I (2000) Hepatic abscess as a complication of the sump syndrome. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 7: 231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Taylor SN, Sanders CV (1999) Unusual manifestations of invasive pneumococcal infection. Am J Med 107: 126–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sabbaj J, Sutter VL, Finegold SM (1972) Anaerobic pyogenic liver abscess. Ann Intern Med 77: 627–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Miedema BW, Dineen P (1984) The diagnosis and treatment of pyogenic liver abscesses. Ann Surg 200: 328–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sugano S, Matuda T, Suzuki T, Makino H, Iinuma M, Ishii K, Ohe K, Mogami K (1997) Hepatic actinomycosis: case report and review of the literature in Japan. J Gastroenterol 32: 672–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Miyamoto MI, Fang FC (1993) Pyogenic liver abscess involving Actinomyces: case report and Clin Infect Dis 16: 303–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dunn MW, Berkowitz FE, Miller JJ, Snitzer JA (1997) Hepatosplenic catscratch disease and abdominal pain. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 269–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Weber G, Abu-Shakra M, Hertzanu Y, Borer A, Sukenik S (1997) Liver abscess caused by Capnocytophaga species. Clin Infect Dis 25: 152–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Napoleao F, Damasco PV, Camello TC, do Vale MD, de Andrade AF, Hirata R Jr, de Mattos-Guaraldi AL (2005) Pyogenic liver abscess due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent host. J Clin Microbiol 43: 1002–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Beeching NJ, Hart HH, Synek BJ, Bremner DA (1985) A patient with hemosiderosis and multiple liver abscesses due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Pathology 17: 530–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lee YL, Lee SS, Tsai HC, Chen YS, Wann SR, Kao CH, Liu YC (2006) Pyogenic liver abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 105: 689–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sisteron O, Souci J, Chevallier P, Cua E, Bruneton JN (2002) Hepatic abscess caused by Brucella. US, CT and MRI findings: case report and review of the literature. Clin Imaging 26: 414–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Colmenero JD, Queipo-Ortuno MI, Maria Reguera J, Angel Suarez-Munoz M, Martin-Carballino S, Morata P (2002) Chronic hepatosplenic abscesses in Brucellosis. Clinico-therapeutic features and molecular diagnostic approach. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 42: 159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Siegman-Igra Y, Levin R, Weinberger M, Golan Y, Schwartz D, Samra Z, Konigsberger H, Yinnon A, Rahav G, Keller N et al (2002) Listeria monocytogenes infection in Israel and review of cases worldwide. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 305–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wing EJ, Gregory SH (2002) Listeria monocytogenes: clinical and experimental update. J Infect Dis 185: 18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Carneiro AC, Lima P, Barbosa IP, Chaves FC (2004) Whipple’s disease-a challenging diagnosis. Acta Med Port 17: 481–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cook GC (1997) Liver involvement in systemic infection. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 9: 1239–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Witkowski JA, Parish LC (2002) The great imitator: malignant syphilis with hepatitis. Clin Dermatol 20: 156–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Korman TM, Spelman DW, Perry GJ, Dowling JP (1998) Acute glomerulonephritis associated with acute Q fever: case report and review of the renal complications of Coxiella burnetii infection. Clin Infect Dis 26: 359–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Romero-Jimenez MJ, Suarez-Lozano I, Fajardo JM, Benavente A, Menchero A, de la Iglesia A (2003) Hepatitis as unique manifestation of Q fever: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics in 109 patients. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 21: 193–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lee HC, Chuang YC, Yu WL, Lee NY, Chang CM, Ko NY, Wang LR, Ko WC (2006) Clinical implications of hypermucoviscosity phenotype in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates: association with invasive syndrome in patients with communityacquired bacteraemia. J Intern Med 259: 606–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Matsushita M, Hajiro K, Okazaki K, Takakuwa H, Nishio A (2000) Endophthalmitis with brain, lung, and liver abscesses associated with an occult colon cancer. Am J Gastroenterol 95: 3664–3665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lim KH, Tan YM, Chow PK (2002) Liver abscess metastasizing to prostate and lung. J R Soc Med 95: 554–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dylewski JS, Dylewski I (1998) Necrotizing fasciitis with Klebsiella liver abscess. Clin Infect Dis 27: 1561–1562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Casanova C, Lorente JA, Carrillo F, Perez-Rodriguez E, Nunez N (1989) Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess associated with septic endophthalmitis. Arch Intern Med 149: 1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Valabhji J, Robinson S, Elkeles RS (2000) Hepatic abscess in a diabetic patient. Postgrad Med J 76: 797–798, 802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lindstrom ST, Healey PR, Chen SC (1997) Metastatic septic endophthalmitis complicating pyogenic liver abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aust N Z J Med 27: 77–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Saccente M (1999) Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess, endophthalmitis, and meningitis in a man with newly recognized diabetes mellitus. Clin Infect Dis 29: 1570–1571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ayinala SR, Vulpe M, Azaz M, Cohen H, Donelson SS, Lee M (2001) Pyogenic liver abscesses due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in a diabetic patient. J Miss State Med Assoc 42: 67–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kim DJ, Pratt DS (2003) Klebsiella liver abscess. J Clin Gastroenterol 36: 186–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cheng DL, Liu YC, Yen MY, Liu CY, Wang RS (1991) Septic metastatic lesions of pyogenic liver abscess. Their association with Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia in diabetic patients. Arch Intern Med 151: 1557–1559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cheng HP, Siu LK, Chang FY (2003) Extended-spectrum cephalosporin compared to cefazolin for treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae-caused liver abscess. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 2088–2092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tan YM, Chee SP, Soo KC, Chow P (2004) Ocular manifestations and complications of pyogenic liver abscess. World J Surg 28: 38–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tan NW, Sriram B, Tan-Kendrick AP, Rajadurai VS (2005) Neonatal hepatic abscess in preterm infants: a rare entity? Ann Acad Med Singapore 34: 558–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vidal JE, da Silva PR, Schiavon Nogueira R, Bonasser Filho F, Hernandez AV (2003) Liver abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis in a returned traveler with HIV infection: case report and review of the literature. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 45: 115–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pramoolsinsap C, Viranuvatti V (1998) Salmonella hepatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13: 745–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Connor BA, Schwartz E (2005) Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in travellers. Lancet Infect Dis 5: 623–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Risser WL, Risser JM, Benjamins LJ, Feldmann JM (2007) Incidence of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in adolescents who have pelvic inflammatory disease. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 20: 179–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gamberini S, Anania G, Incasa E, Zangirolami A, Tampieri M, Boari B, Benea G, Manfredini R (2006) Staphylococcus hemolyticus liver abscess as an uncommon presentation of silent colonic cancer: a case report. J Am Geriatr Soc 54: 1619–1620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nagata S, Sumioka M, Sato O, Miyamoto M, Watanabe C, Yamada H, Hirata K, Imagawa M (1997) A case of liver abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 94: 290–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kuo CM, Kuo CH, Changchien CS (2001) Liver abscess in patients with cirrhosis of the liver: a 12-year experience. J Gastroenterol 36: 552–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lorber B (1997) Listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis 24: 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Vazquez-Boland JA, Kuhn M, Berche P, Chakraborty T, Dominguez-Bernal G, Goebel W, Gonzalez-Zorn B, Wehland J, Kreft J (2001) Listeria pathogenesis and molecular virulence determinants. Clin Microbiol Rev 14: 584–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Riedo FX, Pinner RW, Tosca ML, Cartter ML, Graves LM, Reeves MW, Weaver RE, Plikaytis BD, Broome CV (1994) A point-source foodborne listeriosis outbreak: documented incubation period and possible mild illness. J Infect Dis 170: 693–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gillespie IA, McLauchlin J, Grant KA, Little CL, Mithani V, Penman C, Lane C, Regan M (2006) Changing pattern of human listeriosis, England and Wales, 2001–2004. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 1361–1366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sorabjee JS (2001) The liver in enteric fever and leptospirosis. Indian J Gastroenterol 20: 44–46Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Vaiphei K, Suri V, Bhalla A (2007) Fever, jaundice, altered sensorium, with multiple systemic manifestations. Indian J Gastroenterol 26: 82–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 109.
    Vallejo JG, Stevens AM, Dutton RV, Kaplan SL (1996) Hepatosplenic abscesses due to Brucella melitensis: report of a case involving a child and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 22: 485–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Camara B, Kamar N, Bonafe JL, Danjoux M, Suc B, Rostaing L (2007) Syphilis hepatitis and liver transplantation. Med Mal Infect 37: 121–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Hollier LM, Harstad TW, Sanchez PJ, Twickler DM, Wendel GD Jr (2001) Fetal syphilis: clinical and laboratory characteristics. Obstet Gynecol 97: 947–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Windsor JJ (2001) Cat-scratch disease: epidemiology, aetiology and treatment. Br J Biomed Sci 58: 101–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Aygen B, Sumerkan B, Doganay M, Sehmen E (1998) Prostatitis and hepatitis due to Brucella melitensis: a case report. J Infect 36: 111–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 111.
    Terry RB, Gunnar RM (1957) Primary miliary tuberculosis of the liver. J Am Med Assoc 164: 150–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 112.
    Aston NO (1997) Abdominal tuberculosis. World J Surg 21: 492–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Colmenero JD, Suarez-Munoz MA, Queipo-Ortuno MI, Reguera JM, Morata P (2002) Late reactivation of calcified granuloma in a patient with chronic suppurative brucellosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 21: 897–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sinan T, Sheikh M, Ramadan S, Sahwney S, Behbehani A (2002) CT features in abdominal tuberculosis: 20 years experience. BMC Med Imaging 2: 3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kielhofner MA, Hamill RJ (1991) Focal hepatic tuberculosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. South Med J 84: 401–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Saluja SS, Ray S, Pal S, Kukeraja M, Srivastava DN, Sahni P, Chattopadhyay TK (2007) Hepatobiliary and pancreatic tuberculosis: a two decade experience. BMC Surg 7: 10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Evans ME, Gregory DW, Schaffner W, McGee ZA (1985) Tularemia: a 30-year experience with 88 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 64: 251–269Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilmar Wisplinghoff
    • 1
  • Darryn L. Appleton
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and HygieneUniversity of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Department for Internal MedicineVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations