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Hepadnaviruses have a narrow host range — do they?

  • Kai Dallmeier
  • Michael Nassal
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)

Abstract

Host range describes the range of species that a virus can infect to productively propagate itself. Productive infection requires compatibility between virus and host molecules. Thus host range may be restricted by lack of appropriate permissivity factors;alternatively, hosts may actively counteract infection using restriction factors. Incompatibility between virus and host can manifest on the level of individual cells,of tissues or organs,and of the entire organism. All hepatitis B viruses are hepatotropic,but individual viruses infect the livers of only selected mammalian (orthohepadnaviruses) and avian (avihepadnaviruses) hosts. Hence a narrow host range is thought to be a salient feature of hepadnaviruses. Here we briefly review general mechanisms of host range restriction,and summarise older as well as recent data pertaining to hepadnaviral host range. Clearly,the term species-specific is inadequate for many hepadnaviruses because they can infect different species from one genus,and even species from different genera. For a few others,only a single species,or genus,has been identified that supports efficient infection;however,this could as well relate to the restricted number of experimentally addressable test species. Together with the uncertainty about quantitative phylogenetic relationships between species,still largely based on morphological rather than molecular criteria,this leaves the term narrow open to interpretation. Finally,few if any of the host molecules enabling productive infection by a hepadnavirus have unambiguously been identified,the role of restriction factors has not yet been assessed,and even on the virus side the so-called host determining regions in the PreS domains of the large envelope proteins appear to be relevant only under specialised experimental conditions. Hence this important aspect of hepadnavirus biology is still far from being understood.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Host Range Ground Squirrel Spider Monkey Human Hepatoma Cell Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Dallmeier
    • 1
  • Michael Nassal
    • 1
  1. 1.Internal Medicine II /Molecular BiologyUniversity Hospital FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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