Clinical outcomes using rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion applications

  • J. Kenneth Burkus
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are an integral part of new bone formation and are capable of inducing the entire bone formation cascade [1, 2]. It is this unique property that allows these proteins, when they are combined with a suitable carrier, to be used as a bone graft replacement. The new bone formation occurs in four distinct phases: recruitment and proliferation, differentiation, calcification, and maturation [3]. During the recruitment and proliferation phase, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells are attracted to the site by chemotaxis. These stem cells divide and increase in number. During the differentiation phase, the mesenchymal stem cells are transformed into osteoblasts. During the calcification phase, the osteoblasts produce matrix, generate callous and form new bone. During the maturation phase, the newly formed bone remodels into trabecular bone and increases in vascularity.


Bone Formation Transverse Process Thin Slice Plane Reconstruct Compression Resistant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Kenneth Burkus
    • 1
  1. 1.Staff Physician, Spine ServiceThe Hughston Clinic, P.C.ColumbusUSA

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