K4Care: Knowledge-Based Homecare e-Services for an Ageing Europe

  • Fabio Campana
  • Antonio Moreno
  • David Riaño
  • László Z. Varga
Part of the Whitestein Series in Software Agent Technologies and Autonomic Computing book series (WSSAT)


Increasing longevity and increasing survival to acute accidents and diseases - in addition to the increase in the numbers of elderly people - imply an increased prevalence of chronic morbidity and disability. The elderly population needing full time care is considered as equivalent to the percentage of severely disabled elderly, which in turn is estimated to be 5% for the 65–69 year-old age group, 10% for the 70–79 age group, and 30% for the 80 and over age group [2]; this population can sum up to ten million people in the EU 25 area [3]. The care of chronic and disabled patients involves life long treatment under continuous expert supervision. Moreover, healthcare professionals and patients agree that institutionalization in hospitals or residential facilities may be unnecessary and even counterproductive. Home Care (HC) has been considered as a fundamental component of a network of long term care facilities, capable of reducing institutionalization, expenses and risk of death. The objective of an effective HC has the direct social implication of helping people partially or completely dependent to live in their environment as long as possible, and to contrast the improper use of institutionalization. It has to be considered that the care of the HC Patient (HCP) is particularly complex because of the growing number of people in such circumstances, because of the great amount of resources required to guarantee a quality long-term assistance, and because the typical HCP is an elderly patient, with co-morbid conditions and diseases, cognitive and/or physical impairment, functional loss from multiple disabilities, and impaired self-dependency.


Home Care Procedural Knowledge Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Head Nurse Individual Intervention Plan 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Batet, M., Gibert, K. and Valls, A. The Data Abstraction Layer as knowledge provider for a medical multi-agent system. Proceedings of the workshop From Knowledge to Global Care, held at the 11th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME07. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, (2007).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A Walker, T Maltby. Ageing Europe-1997-Buckingham; Philadelphia: Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  3. [3] Scholar
  4. [4] Scholar
  5. [5]
    The K4CARE Model. D01 technical document,, Dec 2006.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Kane RA, Kane RL. Assessing the elderly: a practical guide to measurement. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1981.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Epstein AM, Hall JA, Besdine R, et al. The emergence of geriatric assessment units: the “new technology of geriatrics.” Ann Intern Med 1987;106:299–303.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Applegate WB, Deyo R, Kramer A, Meehan S. Geriatric evaluation and management: current status and future research directions. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:Suppl:2S–7S.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Stuck AE, Siu AL, Wieland D, Adams J, Rubenstein LZ. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Lancet 1993;342:1032–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Campion EW. The value of geriatric interventions. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:1376–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Unguru G, Feinberg M. Geriatric assessment teams: a review of the literature. Consult Pharm 1998;13:553–63Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Stuck AE, Siu AL, Wieland GD, Adams J, Rubenstein LZ. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: a meta-analysis of controlled trials”. Lancet. 1993 Oct 23;342(8878):1032–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Nikolaus T, Specht-Leible N, Bach M, Oster P and Schlierf G. A randomized trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment and home intervention in the care of hospitalized patients. Age and Ageing, 1999; Vol 28, 543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Fretwell MD, Raymond PM, McGarvey ST et al. The senior Care Study: a controlled trial of consultative/unit based geriatric assessment programme in acute care. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:1973–81Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Landefeld CS, Palmer RM, Kresevic DM et al. A randomized trial of care in a hospital medical unit especially designed to improve the functional outcomes of acutely ill older patients. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:1338–44)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Geriatric Interdisciplinary Teams in The Merck Manual of Geriatrics. Ed: Mark H. Beers, MD Copyright 2000–2006 by Merck & Co. 2005. Chapter 7.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Riaño D., Casals J., Real F. The K4CARE Ontologies. Research Report, DEIM, URV, 2007.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Riaño D. The SDA* Model: A Set Theory Approach. CBMS 2007, Maribor, Slovenia, (2007).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Tamás Kifor, László Z. Varga, Javier Vázquez-Salceda, Sergio Álvarez, Steven Willmott, Simon Miles, Luc Moreau, Provenance in Agent-Mediated Healthcare Systems, IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 38–46, Nov/Dec, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Jonathan Bury, John Fox, David Sutton, The PROforma guideline specification language: progress and prospects, Proceedings of the First European Workshop, Computer-based Support for Clinical Guidelines and Protocols (EWGLP 2000), Leipzig 13–14 Nov. 2000.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    John Fox, Nicky Johns, Ali Rahmanzadeh, Disseminating Medical Knowledge: the PROforma Approach, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1–2, pp. 157–182, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Robert Kosara, Silvia Miksch, Metaphors of Movement: A Visualization and User Interface for Time-Oriented, Skeletal Plans, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 111–131, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Campana
    • 1
  • Antonio Moreno
    • 2
  • David Riaño
    • 2
  • László Z. Varga
    • 3
  1. 1.CADLazio, Rome
  2. 2.Universitat Rovira i VirgiliSpain
  3. 3.Computer and Automation Research InstituteBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations