Better education through improved health and nutrition: implications for early childhood development programs in developing countries

  • Matthew Jukes
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)


Before children reach school age they must negotiate threats from a number of diseases. More than 50% of child deaths are caused by pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, malnutrition and HIV. For those who survive, health and nutrition can affect children’s development. School readiness depends on cognitive, motor and socio-emotional development, which can be affected by, among other things, undernutrition, iron deficiency anemia and malaria. There is clear evidence of the benefits of preschool health and nutrition interventions to tackle these three conditions. For malnourished children, psychosocial stimulation can be as effective as nutritional supplementation in compensating for delayed cognitive development. In general, interventions in this preschool age group have substantial and consistent effects on development and education, which are generally larger than for school-age children. Effects are seen in all dimensions of school readiness — cognitive, motor and socio-emotional development — but are perhaps greatest for motor development. They also have a greater impact on the most disadvantaged children and can help to promote equity in educational outcomes. Overall, evidence suggests that early childhood health and nutrition interventions have the potential to make a major contribution to achieving the goal of Education for All.


Preschool Child Cognitive Development Cerebral Malaria Iron Supplementation Mental Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bundy DAP (1997) Health and Early Child Development. In: ME Young (ed): Early Child Development: Investing in Our Children’s Future. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 11–39Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bundy DAP, Guyatt HL (1996) Schools for health: Focus on health, education and the school-age child. Parasitol Today 12: 1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    US Census Bureau (2002) Population Division, International Programs Center. Available at: Scholar
  4. 4.
    Simeon D, Grantham-McGregor S (1990) Nutritional deficiencies and children’s behaviour and mental development. Nutr Res Rev 3: 1–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lasky RE, Klein RE, Yarbrough C, Engle PL, Lechtig A, Martorell R (1981) The relationship between physical growth and infant behavioral development in rural Guatemala. Child Dev 52: 219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grantham-McGregor SM, Stewart M, Desai P (1978) A new look at the assessment of mental development in young children recovering from severe malnutrition. Dev Med Child Neurol 20: 773–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grantham-McGregor S, Powell C, Fletcher P (1989) Stunting, severe malnutrition and mental development in young children. Eur J Clin Nutr 43: 403–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freeman HE, Klein RE, Townsend JW, Lechtig A (1980) Nutrition and cognitive development among rural Guatemalan children. Am J Public Health 70: 1277–1285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chavez A, Martinez C (1981) School performance of supplemented and unsupplemented children from a poor rural area. Prog Clin Biol Res 77: 393–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Waber DP, Vuori-Christiansen L, Ortiz N, Clement JR, Christiansen NE, Mora JO, Reed RB, Herrera MG (1981) Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 34(Suppl 4): 807–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vermeersch C, Kremer M (2004) School Meals, Educational Achievement, and School Competition: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McKay H, Sinisterra L, McKay A, Gomez H, Lloreda P (1978) Improving cognitive ability in chronically deprived children. Science 200: 270–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Walker SP, Himes JH (1991) Nutritional supplementation, psychosocial stimulation, and mental-development of stunted children — the Jamaican Study. Lancet 338: 1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grantham-McGregor S, Powell C, Walker S, Chang S, Fletcher P (1994) The long-term follow-up of severely malnourished children who participated in an intervention program. Child Dev 65: 428–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grantham-McGregor S (1995) A review of studies of the effect of severe malnutrition on mental development. J Nutr 125(Suppl 8): 2233s–2238sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP, Chang SM, Powell CA (1997) Effects of early childhood supplementation with and without stimulation on later development in stunted Jamaican children. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Chang SM (2000) Effects of growth restriction in early childhood on growth, IQ, and cognition at age 11 to 12 years and the benefits of nutritional supplementation and psychosocial stimulation. J Pediatr 137: 36–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Watanabe K, Flores R, Fujiwara J, Lien THT (2005) Early childhood development interventions and cognitive development of young children in rural Vietnam. J Nutr 135: 1918–1925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pollitt E, Gorman KS, Engle PL, Rivera JA, Martorell R (1995) Nutrition in early-life and the fulfillment of intellectual potential. J Nutr 125: S1111–S1118Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li HJ, Barnhart HX, Stein AD, Martorell R (2003) Effects of early childhood supplementation on the educational achievement of women. Pediatrics 112: 1156–1162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pollitt E, Watkins WE, Husaini MA (1997) Three-month nutritional supplementation in Indonesian infants and toddlers benefits memory function 8 y later. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 1357–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Joos SK, Pollitt E, Mueller WH, Albright DL (1983) The Bacon Chow study: Maternal nutritional supplementation and infant behavioral development. Child Dev 54: 669–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Husaini MA, Karyadi L, Husaini YK, Sandjaja, Karyadi D, Pollitt E (1991) Developmental effects of short-term supplementary feeding in nutritionally-atrisk Indonesian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 54: 799–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Whaley SE, Sigman M, Espinosa MP, Neumann CG (1998) Infant predictors of cognitive development in an undernourished Kenyan population. J Dev Behav Pediatr 19: 169–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chang SM, Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor S, Powell CA (2002) Early childhood stunting and later behaviour and school achievement. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43: 775–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Walker SP, Chang SM, Powell CA, Simonoff E, Grantham-McGregor SM (2006) Psychosocial functioning in late adolescence in stunted and non-stunted Jamaican children and the impact of early childhood stimulation and supplementation. BMJ 333: 472–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Glewwe P, King EM (2001) The impact of early childhood nutritional status on cognitive development: Does the timing of malnutrition matter? World Bank Econ Rev 15: 81–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mendez MA, Adair LS (1999) Severity and timing of stunting in the first two years of life affect performance on cognitive tests in late childhood. J Nutr 129: 1555–1562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wachs TD, Sigman M, Bishry Z, Moussa W, Jerome N, Neumann C, Bwibo N, McDonald MA (1992) Caregiver child interaction patterns in 2 cultures in relation to nutritional intake. Int J Behav Dev 15: 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grantham-McGregor S, Schofield W, Haggard D (1989) Maternal-child interaction in survivors of severe malnutrition who received psychosocial stimulation. Eur J Clin Nutr 43: 45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cravioto J, Arrieta R (1979) Stimulation and mental development of malnourished infants. Lancet 2: 899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McDonald MA, Sigman M, Espinosa MP, Neumann CG (1994) Impact of a temporary food shortage on children and their mothers. Child Dev 65: 404–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grantham-McGregor SM (1998) Small for gestational age, term babies, in the first six years of life. Eur J Clin Nutr 52: S59–S64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    UNICEF (2006) State of the World’s Children — Excluded and Invisible. UNICEF, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 36.
    Angelsen NK, Vik T, Jacobsen G, Bakketeig LS (2001) Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years. Arch Dis Child 85: 183–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 37.
    Jain A, Concato J, Leventhal JM (2002) How good is the evidence linking breastfeeding and intelligence? Pediatrics 109: 1044–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 38.
    Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Remley DT (1999) Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 70: 525–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 39.
    Walter T (1989) Infancy — Mental and motor development. Am J Clin Nutr 50: 655–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 40.
    Lozoff B, Brittenham GM, Wolf AW, McClish DK, Kuhnert PM, Jimenez E, Jimenez R, Mora LA, Gomez I, Krauskoph D (1987) Iron deficiency anaemia and iron therapy effects on infant developmental test performance [published erratum appears in Pediatrics (1988) May; 81: 683]. Pediatrics 79: 981–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 41.
    Lozoff B, Brittenham GM, Viteri FE, Wolf AW, Urrutia JJ (1982) The effects of short-term oral iron therapy on developmental deficits in iron-deficient anemic infants. J Pediatr 100: 351–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 42.
    Idjradinata, P, Pollitt E (1993) Reversal of developmental delays in iron-deficient anaemic infants treated with iron. Lancet 341: 1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 43.
    Grantham-McGregor S, Ani C (2001) A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr 131: 649S–666SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 44.
    Pollitt E, Sacopollitt C, Leibel RL, Viteri FE (1986) Iron-Deficiency and Behavioral-Development in Infants and Preschool-Children. Am J Clin Nutr 43: 555–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 45.
    Soewondo S, Husaini M, Pollitt E (1989) Effects of iron-deficiency on attention and learning-processes in preschool-children — Bandung, Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr 50: 667–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 46.
    Seshadri S, Gopaldas T (1989) Impact of iron supplementation on cognitive functions in preschool and school-aged children: the Indian experience. Am J Clin Nutr 50(Suppl 3): 675–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 47.
    Stoltzfus RJ, Kvalsvig JD, Chwaya HM, Montresor A, Albonico M, Tielsch J M, Savioli L, Pollitt E (2001) Effects of iron supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on motor and language development of preschool children in Zanzibar: double blind, placebo controlled study. BMJ 323(7326): 1389–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 48.
    Jukes MCH, Sharma C, Miguel E, Bobonis G. The effect of iron supplementation on attention and cognitive development in Indian preschool children; in preparation Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Hagen J, Mollen E, Wolf AW (2000) Poorer behavioral and developmental outcome more than 10 years after treatment for iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatrics 105: e51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 50.
    Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Wolf AW (1991) Long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron-deficiency. N Engl J Med 325: 687–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 51.
    de Andraca Oyarzun I, Gonzalez Lopez B, Salas Aliaga MI (1991) [Characteristics of the family structure of school children with antecedents of severe and early malnutrition which nowadays present different intellectual levels]. Arch Latinoam Nutr 41: 168–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 52.
    Palti H, Pevsner B, Adler B (1983) Does anaemia in infancy affect achievement on developmental and intelligence tests? Hum Biol 55: 183–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 53.
    Palti H, Meijer A, Adler B (1985) Learning achievement and behavior at school of anemic and non-anemic infants. Early Hum Dev 10: 217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 54.
    Delange F (2000) The role of iodine in brain development. Proc Nutr Soc 59: 75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 55.
    Greene LS (1984) Iodine malnutrition, inbreeding, and developmental retardation. Am J Phys Anthropol 63: 166–166Google Scholar
  55. 56.
    Pharoah POD, Connolly KJ (1987) A controlled trial of iodinated oil for the prevention of endemic cretinism — a long-term follow-up. Int J Epidemiol 16: 68–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 57.
    Bleichrodt N, Born MP (1996) Iodine deficiency disorders: A meta-analysis. Int J Psychol 31: 5768–5768Google Scholar
  57. 58.
    Grant ECG, Howard JM, Davies S, Chasty H, Hornsby B, Galbraith J (1988) Zinc-deficiency in children with dyslexia — Concentrations of zinc and other minerals in sweat and hair. Br Med J 296: 607–609Google Scholar
  58. 59.
    Grant ECG (2004) Developmental dyslexia and zinc deficiency. Lancet 364: 247–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 60.
    Hamadani JD, Fuchs GJ, Osendarp SJM, Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM (2002) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy and effects on mental development and behaviour of infants: a follow-up study. Lancet 360: 290–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 61.
    Hamadani JD, Fuchs GJ, Osendarp SJM, Khatun F, Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM (2001) Randomized controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation on the mental development of Bangladeshi infants. Am J Clin Nutr 74: 381–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 62.
    Holding PA, Stevenson J, Peshu N, Marsh K (1999) Cognitive sequelae of severe malaria with impaired consciousness. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 529–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 63.
    Boivin MJ (2002) Effects of early cerebral malaria on cognitive ability in Senegalese children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 23: 353–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 64.
    Muntendam AH, Jaffar S, Bleichrodt N, van Hensbroek MB (1996) Absence of neuropsychological sequelae following cerebral malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90: 391–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 65.
    Holding PA, Snow RW (2001) Impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on performance and learning: Review of the evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 68–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 66.
    Jukes MCH, Pinder M, Grigorenko EL, Smith HB, Walraven G, Bariau EM., Sternberg RJ, Drake LJ, Milligan P, Cheung YB et al (2006) Long-term impact of malaria chemoprophylaxis on cognitive abilities and educational attainment: Follow-up of a controlled trial. PLoS Clin Trials 1: e19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 67.
    Shiff C, Checkley W, Winch P, Premji Z, Minjas J, Lubega P (1996) Changes in weight gain and anaemia attributable to malaria in Tanzanian children living under holoendemic conditions. Trans R Soc Tro Med Hyg 90: 262–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 68.
    UN Millennium Project (2000) Quick Wins. from Scholar
  68. 69.
    Brooker S, Guyatt H, Omumbo J, Shretta R, Drake L, Ouma J (2000) Situation analysis of malaria in school-aged children in Kenya — What can be done? Parasitol Today 16: 183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 70.
    Sowunmi A (1993) Psychosis after cerebral malaria in children. J Natl Med Assoc 85: 695–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 71.
    Sowunmi A, Ohaeri JU, Falade CO (1995) Falciparum-malaria presenting as psychosis. Trop Geogr Med 47: 218–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 72.
    Wolters PL, Brouwers P, Moss HA, Pizzo PA (1995) Differential receptive and expressive language functioning of children with symptomatic HIV disease and relation to Ct scan brain abnormalities. Pediatrics 95: 112–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 73.
    Frank EG, Foley GM, Kuchuk A (1997) Cognitive functioning in school-age children with human immunodeficiency virus. Percept Mot Skills 85: 267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 74.
    Pizzo PA, Eddy J, Falloon J, Balis FM, Murphy RF, Moss H, Wolters P, Brouwers P, Jarosinski P, Rubin M et al (1988) Effect of continuous intravenous-infusion of zidovudine (Azt) in children with symptomatic HIV infection. N Engl J Med 319: 889–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 75.
    Stolar A, Fernandez F (1997) Psychiatric perspective of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection. Southern Med J 90: 1007–1016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 76.
    Wolters PL, Brouwers P, Moss HA, Pizzo PA (1994) Adaptive-behavior of children with symptomatic HIV-infection before and after zidovudine therapy. J Pediatr Psychol 19: 47–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 77.
    Brady MT, McGrath N, Brouwers P, Gelber R, Fowler MG, Yogev R, Hutton N, Bryson YJ, Mitchell CD, Fikrig S et al (1996) Randomized study of the tolerance and efficacy of high-versus low-dose zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with mild to moderate symptoms (AIDS Clinical Trials Group 128). J Infect Dis 173: 1097–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 78.
    Makame V, Ani C, Grantham-McGregor S (2002) Psychological well-being of orphans in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Acta Paediatr 91: 459–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 79.
    Nyamukapa CA, Gregson S, Lopman B, Saito S, Watts HJ, Monasch R, Jukes MCH. HIV-associated orphanhood and children’s psychosocial disorders: theoretical framework tested with data from Zimbabwe; submitted Google Scholar
  79. 80.
    Watkins WE, Pollitt E (1997) “Stupidity or worms”: Do intestinal worms impair mental performance? Psychol Bull 121: 171–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 81.
    Dickson R, Awasthi S, Williamson P, Demellweek C, Garner P (2000) Effects of treatment for intestinal helminth infection on growth and cognitive performance in children: systematic review of randomised trials. BMJ 320: 1697–1701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 82.
    Nokes C, Grantham McGregor SM, Sawyer AW, Cooper ES, Robinson BA, Bundy DA (1992) Moderate to heavy infections of Trichuris trichiura affect cognitive function in Jamaican school children. Parasitology 104: 539–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 83.
    Nokes C, McGarvey ST, Shiue L, Wu G, Wu H, Bundy DA, Olds GR (1999) Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Chinese primary schoolchildren. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 556–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 84.
    Simeon DT, Grantham McGregor SM, Callender JE, Wong MS (1995) Treatment of Trichuris trichiura infections improves growth, spelling scores and school attendance in some children. J Nutr 125: 1875–1883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 85.
    Simeon DT, Grantham McGregor SM, Wong MS (1995) Trichuris trichiura infection and cognition in children: results of a randomized clinical trial. Parasitology 110: 457–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 86.
    Partnership for Child Development. Effect of antheltmintics on children’s growth and cognitive abilities after 3 months and 16 months; submitted Google Scholar
  86. 87.
    Brooker S, Peshu N, Warn PA, Mosobo M, Guyatt HL, Marsh K, Snow RW (1999) The epidemiology of hookworm infection and its contribution to anaemia among pre-school children on the Kenyan Coast. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 240–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 88.
    Stoltzfus RJ, Kvalsvig JD, Chwaya HM, Montresor A, Albonico M, Tielsch JM Savioli L, Pollitt E (2001) Effects of iron supplementation and antihelmintic treatment on motor and language development of preschool children in Zanzibar: double blind, placebo controlled study. BMJ 323: 1389–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 89.
    Berkman DS, Lescano AG, Gilman RH, Lopez S, Black MM (2002) Effects of stunting, diarrhoeal disease, and parasitic infection during infancy on cognition in late childhood: a follow-up study. Lancet 359: 564–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 90.
    Berman S (1995) Otitis media in developing dountries. Pediatrics 96: 126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 91.
    Balle VH, Tos M, Dang HS, Nhan TS, Le T, Tran KP, Tran TT, Vu MT (2000) Prevalence of chronic otitis media in a randomly selected population from two communes in southern Vietnam. Acta Oto-Laryngol 543: 51–53Google Scholar
  91. 92.
    Rupa V, Jacob A, Joseph A (1999) Chronic suppurative otitis media: prevalence and practices among rural South Indian children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 48: 217–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 93.
    Casby MW (2001) Otitis media and language development: A meta-analysis. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 10: 65–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 94.
    Roberts JE, Burchinal MR, Zeisel SA, Neebe EC, Hooper SR, Roush J, Bryant D, Mundy M, Henderson FW (1998) Otitis media, the caregiving environment, and language and cognitive outcomes at 2 years. Pediatrics 102: 346–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 95.
    Hodgson A, Smith T, Gagneux S, Akumah I, Adjuik M, Pluschke G, Binka F, Genton B (2001) Infectious diseases — Survival and sequelae of meningococcal meningitis in Ghana. Int J Epidemiol 30: 1440–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 96.
    Berg S, Trollfors B, Hugosson S, Fernell E, Svensson E (2002) Long-term follow-up of children with bacterial meningitis with emphasis on behavioural characteristics. Eur J Pediatr 161: 330–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 97.
    Koomen I, Grobbee DE, Jennekens-Schinkel A, Roord JJ, van Furth AM (2003) Parental perception of educational, behavioural and general health problems in school-age survivors of bacterial meningitis. Acta Paediatr 92: 177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 98.
    Grimwood K, Anderson P, Anderson V, Tan L, Nolan T (2000) Twelve year outcomes following bacterial meningitis: further evidence for persisting effects. Arch Dis Child 83: 111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 99.
    Del Rosso JM (1999) School feeding programmes: improving effectiveness and increasing benefit to education. Partnership for Child Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. 100.
    WHO (2006) Child and adolescent health: Child feeding and nutrition. http:// Scholar
  100. 101.
    Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, Chwaya HM, Stoltzfus RJ, Dutta A, Dhingra U, Kabole I, Deb S, Othman MK, Kabole FM (2006) Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 367(9505): 133–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 102.
    WHO (2006) Iron supplementation of young children in regions where malaria transmission is intense and infectious disease highly prevalent. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  102. 103.
    Chandramohan D, Owusu-Agyei S, Carneiro I, Awine T, Amponsa-Achiano K, Mensah N, Jaffar S, Baiden R, Hodgson A, Binka F, Greenwood B (2005) Cluster randomised trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in area of high, seasonal transmission in Ghana. BMJ 331: 727–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 104.
    Grigorenko E, Sternberg R, Ngorosho D, Nokes C, Jukes M, Alcock KJ, Lambo J, Ngorosho D, Nokes CA, Bundy DAP (2006) Effects of antiparasitic treatment on dynamically-assessed cognitive skills. J Appl Dev Psychol 27: 499–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 105.
    Jukes MCH, Drake L, Bundy DA. School health, nutrition and educatin for all: Levelling the playing field. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK; in press Google Scholar
  105. 106.
    Jukes MC, Nokes CA, Alcock KJ, Lambo JK, Kihamia C, Ngorosho N, Mbise A, Lorri W, Yona E, Mwanri L et al (2002) Heavy schistosomiasis associated with poor short-term memory and slower reaction times in Tanzanian school children. Trop Med Int Health 7: 104–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 107.
    Simeon DT, Grantham McGregor S (1989) Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children of differing nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 49: 646–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 108.
    Bobonis G, Miguel E, Sharma C (2006) Iron deficiency anemia and school performance. Journal of Human Resources 41: 692–721Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Jukes
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Harvard Graduate School of EducationCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Partnership for Child Development, Department of Infectious Disease EpidemiologyImperial College School of MedicineLondonUK

Personalised recommendations