Advertisement

Invasive fungal infections in children: advances and perspectives

  • Andreas H. Groll
  • Julia Koehler
  • Thomas J. Walsh
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)

Abstract

Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. The past two decades have seen a dramatic increase in both number and overall relevance of invasive fungal infections in the hospital. At the same time, however, improved microbiological and imaging techniques together with an increased awareness have shifted the diagnosis of fungal infections from the autopsy theatre to the bedside. Major advances have been made in the definition of fungal diseases, the algorithms of antifungal interventions, the design and implementation of clinical trials and the development of standardized in vitro susceptibility testing. Most importantly, however, an array of new antifungal agents has entered the clinical arena and has made antifungal therapy more safe, more effective, but also more complicated. This article reviews some unique features of invasive fungal infections in infants and children and provides an update on the pharmacology of antifungal therapeutics in the pediatric population.

Keywords

Invasive Aspergillosis Antimicrob Agent Chronic Granulomatous Disease Invasive Fungal Infection Invasive Candidiasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mitchell SJ, Gray J, Morgan ME, Hocking MD, Durbin GM (1996) Nosocomial infection with Rhizopus microsporus in preterm infants: association with wooden tongue depressors. Lancet 348: 441–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Papouli M, Roilides E, Bibashi E, Andreou A (1996) Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in neonates: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 22: 1102–1104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robertson AF, Joshi VV, Ellison DA, Cedars JC (1997) Zygomycosis in neonates. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 812–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Groll AH, Jaeger G, Allendorf A, Herrmann G, Schloesser R, von Loewenich V (1998) Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a critically ill neonate: case report and review of invasive aspergillosis during the first 3 months of life. Clin Infect Dis 27: 437–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wiley EL, Hutchins GM (1977) Superior vena cava syndrome secondary to Candida thrombophlebitis complicating parenteral alimentation. J Pediatr 91: 977–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Friedland IR (1996) Peripheral thrombophlebitis caused by Candida. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15: 375–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khan EA, Correa AG, Baker CJ (1997) Suppurative thrombophlebitis in children: a ten-year experience. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mayayo E, Moralejo J, Camps J, Guarro J (1996) Fungal endocarditis in premature infants: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 22: 366–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walsh TJ, Gray W (1987) Candida epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients. Chest 91: 482–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hass A, Hyatt AC, Kattan M, Weiner M, Hodes DS (1987) Hoarseness in immunocompromised children: Association with invasive fungal infection. J Pediatr 111: 731–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burton DM, Seid AB, Kearns DB, Pransky SM (1992) Candida laryngotracheitis: a complication of combined steroid and antibiotic usage in croup. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 23: 171–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Balsam D, Sorrano D, Barax C (1992) Candida epiglottitis presenting as stridor in a child with HIV infection. Pediatr Radiol 22: 235–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kearns GL, Reed MD (1989) Clinical pharmacokinetics in infants and children, a reappraisal. Clin Pharmacokinetics 17(Suppl 1): 29–67Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morselli PL (1989) Clinical pharmacology of the perinatal period and early infancy. Clin Pharmacokinetics 17(Suppl 1): 13–28Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reed MD, Besunder JB (1989) Developmental ontogenic basis of drug disposition. Pediatr Clin North Am 36: 1053–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Faix RG (1984) Systemic Candida infections in infants in intensive care nurseries: high incidence of central nervous system involvement. J Pediatr 105: 616–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee BE, Cheung PY, Robinson JL, Evanochko C, Robertson CM (1998) Comparative study of mortality and morbidity in premature infants (birth weight, < 1,250 g) with candidemia or candidal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 27: 559–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewis DB, Wilson CB (1995) Developmental immunology and role of host defenses in neonatal susceptibility to infection. In: JS Remington, JO Klein (eds.): Infectious Diseases of the fetus and newborn infant, 4th edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 50–68Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leggiadro RJ, Barrett FF, Hughes WT (1988) Disseminated histoplasmosis of infancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 7: 799–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Odio CM, Navarrete M, Carrillo JM, Mora L, Carranza A (1999) Disseminated histoplasmosis in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18: 1065–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walsh CM, Morris SK, Brophy JC, Hiraki LT, Richardson SE, Allen UD (2006) Disseminated blastomycosis in an infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:656–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stiehm ER, Chin TW, Haas A, Peerless AG (1986) Infectious complications of the primary immunodeficiencies. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40: 69–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rosen FS, Cooper MD, Wedgwood RJP (1995) The primary immunodeficiencies. N Engl J Med 333: 431–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohen MS, Isturiz PE, Malech HL, Root RK, Wilfert CM, Gutman L, Buckley RH (1981) Fungal infection in chronic granulomatous disease. The importance of the phagocyte in defense against fungi. Am J Med 71: 59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mouy R, Fischer A, Vilmer E, Seger R, Griscelli C (1989) Incidence, severity, and prevention of infections in chronic granulomatous disease. J Pediatr 14: 555–560Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chung Y, Kraut JR, Stone AM, Valaitis J (1994) Disseminated aspergillosis in a patient with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 17: 131–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown K, Rosenthal M, Bush A (1999) Fatal invasive aspergillosis in an adolescent with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 27: 130–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Walsh TJ, Gonzalez C, Lyman CA, Chanock SJ, Pizzo PA (1996) Invasive fungal infections in children: recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis 11: 187–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schwartz DA, Reef S (1990) Candida albicans placentitis and funisitis: early diagnosis of congenital candidemia by histopathologic examination of umbilical cord vessels. Pediatr Infect Dis J 9: 661–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen CJ, Weng YH, Su LH, Huang YC (2006) Molecular evidence of congenital candidiasis associated with maternal candidal vaginitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25: 655–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hoppe JE (1997) Treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis and candidal diaper dermatitis in neonates and infants: review and reappraisal. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 885–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kaufman DA, Gurka MJ, Hazen KC, Boyle R, Robinson M, Grossman LB (2006) Patterns of fungal colonization in preterm infants weighing less than 1000 grams at birth. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25: 733–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Beck-Sague CM, Azimi P, Fonseca SN, Baltimore RS, Powell DA, Bland LA, Arduino MJ, McAllister SK, Huberman RS, Sinkowitz RL (1994) Bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: results of a multicenter study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 13: 1110–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, Shankaran S, Tyson JE, Bauer CR, Fanaroff AA, Lemons JA, Donovan EF, Oh W et al (1996) Early-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr 129: 72–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kaufman D, Fairchild KD (2004) Clinical microbiology of bacterial and fungal sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. Clin Microbiol Rev 17: 638–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shah SS, Smith MJ, Zaoutis TE (2005) Device-related infections in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 52: 1189–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scarcella A, Pasquariello MB, Giugliano B, Vendemmia M, de Lucia A (1998) Liposomal amphotericin B treatment for neonatal fungal infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17: 146–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kingo AR, Smyth JA, Waisman D (1997) Lack of evidence of amphotericin B toxicity in very low birth weight infants treated for systemic candidiasis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 1002–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leibovitz E, Iuster-Reicher A, Amitai M, Mogilner B (1992) Systemic candidal infections associated with use of peripheral venous catheters in neonates: a 9-year experience. Clin Infect Dis 14: 485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Butler KM, Rench MA, Baker CJ (1990) Amphotericin B as a single agent in the treatment of systemic candidiasis in neonates. Pediatr Infect Dis J 9: 51–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Glick C, Graves GR, Feldman S (1993) Neonatal fungemia and amphotericin B. South Med J 86: 1368–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harms K, Herting E, Schiffmann JH, Speer CP (1992) Candida infections in premature infants weighing less than 1500 g. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 140: 633–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Faix R (1992) Invasive neonatal candidiasis: comparison of albicans and parapsilosis infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 11: 88–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Saxen H, Virtanen M, Carlson P, Hoppu K, Pohjavuori M, Vaara M, Vuopio-Varkila J, Peltola H (1995) Neonatal Candida parapsilosis outbreak with a high case fatality rate. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14: 776–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Driessen M, Ellis JB, Cooper PA, Wainer S, Muwazi F, Hahn D, Gous H, De Villiers FP (1996) Fluconazole vs. amphotericin B for the treatment of neonatal fungal septicemia: a prospective randomized trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15: 1107–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Huttova M, Hartmanova I, Kralinsky K, Filka J, Uher J, Kurak J, Krizan S, Krcmery V Jr (1998) Candida fungemia in neonates treated with fluconazole: report of forty cases, including eight with meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17: 1012–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Botas CM, Kurlat I, Young SM, Sola A (1995) Disseminated candidal infections and intravenous hydrocortisone in preterm infants. Pediatrics 95: 883–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Melville C, Kempley S, Graham J, Berry CL (1996) Early onset systemic Candida infection in extremely preterm neonates. Eur J Pediatr 155: 904–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Saiman L, Ludington E, Pfaller M, Rangel-Frausto S, Wiblin RT, Dawson J, Blumberg HM, Patterson JE, Rinaldi M, Edwards JE et al (2000) Risk factors for candidemia in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit patients. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey study group. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19: 319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, Wright LL, Carlo WA, Ehrenkranz RA, Lemons JA, Donovan EF, Stark AR, Tyson JE et al (2002) Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 110: 285–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Benjamin DK Jr, Stoll BJ, Fanaroff AA, McDonald SA, Oh W, Higgins RD, Duara S, Poole K, Laptook A, Goldberg R; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (2006) Neonatal candidiasis among extremely low birth weight infants: risk factors, mortality rates, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months. Pediatrics 117: 84–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Weese-Mayer D, Fondriest DW, Brouillette R, Shulman ST (1987) Risks factors associated with candidemia in the neonatal intensive care unit: a case control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6: 190–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weems JJ Jr, Chamberland ME, Ward J, Willy M, Padhye AA, Solomon SL (1987) Candida parapsilosis fungemia associated with parenteral nutrition and contaminated blood pressure transducers. J Clin Microbiol 25: 1029–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rowen JL, Rench MA, Kozinetz CA, Adams JM Jr, Baker CJ (1994) Endotracheal colonization with Candida enhances risk of systemic candidiasis in very low birth weight neonates. J Pediatr 124: 789–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rowen JL, Atkins JT, Levy ML, Baer SC, Baker CJ (1995) Invasive fungal dermatitis in the ≤1000-gram neonate. Pediatrics 95: 682–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chiou C, Wong T, Lin H, Hwang B, Tang R, Wu K, Lee B (1994) Fungal infection of ventriculoperitoneal shunts in children. Clin Infect Dis 19: 1049–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Levy I, Shalit I, Askenazi S, Klinger G, Sirota L, Linder N (2006) Duration and outcome of persistent candidaemia in newborn infants. Mycoses 49(3): 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dankner WM, Spector SA, Fierer J, Davis CE (1987) Malassezia fungemia in neonates and adults: complication of hyperalimentation. Rev Infect Dis 9: 743–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shek YH, Tucker MC, Viciana AL, Manz HJ, Connor DH (1989) Malassezia furfur — disseminated infection in premature infants. Am J Clin Pathol 92: 595–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chang HJ, Miller HL, Watkins N, Arduino MJ, Ashford DA, Midgley G, Aguero SM, Pinto-Powell R, von Reyn CF, Edwards W et al (1998) An epidemic of Malassezia pachydermatis in an intensive care nursery associated with colonization of health care workers’ pet dogs. N Engl J Med 338: 706–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Welbel SF, McNeil MM, Pramanik A, Silberman R, Oberle AD, Midgley G, Crow S, Jarvis WR (1994) Nosocomial Malassezia pachydermatis bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 13: 104–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rowen JL, Correa AG, Sokol DM, Hawkins HK, Levy ML, Edwards MS (1992) Invasive aspergillosis in neonates: report of five cases and literature review. Pediatr Infect Dis 11: 576–582Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tobon AM, Franco L, Espinal D, Gomez I, Arango M, Trujillo H, Restrepo A (1996) Disseminated histoplasmosis in children: the role of itraconazole therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15: 1002–1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chesney JC, Gourley GR, Peters, ME, Moffet HL (1979) Pulmonary blastomycosis in children. Am J Dis Child 133: 1134–1139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Golden SE, Morgan CM, Bartley DL, Campo RV (1986) Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with chorioretinitis in early infancy. Pediatr Infect Dis 5: 272–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gajdusek DC (1976) Pneumocystis carinii as the cause of human disease: historical perspective and magnitude of the problem: introductory remarks. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 43: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lehrer RI, Kline MJ (1969) Leukocyte myeloperoxidases deficiency and disseminated candidiasis: the role of myeloperoxidase in resistance to Candida infection. J Clin Invest 48: 1478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Parry MF, Root RK, Metcalfe JA (1981) Myeleoperoxidase deficiency: prevalence and clinical significance. Ann Intern Med 95: 293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Meischl C, Roos D (1998) The molecular basis of chronic granulomatous disease. Springer Semin Immunopathol 19: 417–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Segal BH, DeCarlo ES, Kwon-Chung KJ, Malech HL, Gallin JI, Holland SM (1998) Aspergillus nidulans infection in chronic granulomatous disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 77: 345–354Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jabado N, Casanova JL, Haddad E, Dulieu F, Fournet JC, Dupont B, Fischer A, Hennequin C, Blanche S (1998) Invasive pulmonary infection due to Scedosporium apiospermum in two children with chronic granulomatous disease. Clin Infect Dis 27: 1437–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gallin JI, Alling DW, Malech HL, Wesley R, Koziol D, Marciano B, Eisenstein EM, Turner ML, DeCarlo ES, Starling JM, Holland SM (2003) Itraconazole to prevent fungal infections in chronic granulomatous disease. N Engl J Med 348: 2416–2422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Marciano BE, Wesley R, De Carlo ES, Anderson VL, Barnhart LA, Darnell D, Malech HL, Gallin JI, Holland SM (2004) Long-term interferon-gamma therapy for patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Clin Infect Dis 39: 692–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fischer A, Segal AW, Seger R, Weening RS (1993) The management of chronic granulomatous disease. Eur J Pediatr 152: 896–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gallin JI (1992) Interferon-gamma in the management of chronic granulomatous disease. Rev Infect Dis 13: 973–978Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Segal BH, Leto TL, Gallin JI, Malech HL, Holland SM (2000) Genetic, biochemical, and clinical features of chronic granulomatous disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 79: 170–200Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Casadevall A, Cassone A, Bistoni F, Cutler JE, Magliani W, Murphy JW, Polonelli L, Romani L (1998) Antibody and/or cell-mediated immunity, protective mechanisms in fungal disease: an ongoing dilemma or an unnecessary dispute? Med Mycol 36(Suppl 1): 95–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Levy J, Espanol-Boren T, Thomas C, Fischer A, Tovo P, Bordigoni P, Resnick I, Fasth A, Baer M, Gomez L et al (1997) Clinical spectrum of X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. J Pediatr 131: 47–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Grimbacher B, Holland SM, Gallin JI, Greenberg F, Hill SC, Malech HL, Miller JA, O’Connell AC, Puck JM (1998) Hyper-IgE syndrome with recurrent infections — an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder. N Engl J Med 340: 692–702Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Markert ML, Hummell DS, Rosenblatt HM, Schiff SE, Harville TO, Williams LW, Schiff RI, Buckley RH (1998) Complete DiGeorge syndrome: persistence of profound immunodeficiency. J Pediatr 132: 15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Markert ML, Boeck A, Hale LP, Kloster AL, McLaughlin TM, Batchvarova MN, Douek DC, Koup RA, Kostyu DD, Ward FE et al (1999) Transplantation of thymus tissue in complete DiGeorge syndrome. N Engl J Med 341: 1180–1189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Buckley RH, Schiff SE, Schiff RI, Markert L, Williams LW, Roberts JL, Myers LA, Ward FE (1999) Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 340: 508–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kirkpatrick CH (1994) Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 31: 14–17Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Obermayer-Straub P, Manns MP (1998) Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol 12: 293–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Green M, Michaels MG (1992) Infectious complications of solid-organ transplantation in children. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis 7: 181–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chanock SJ, Walsh TJ (1996) Evolving concepts of prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections in pediatric bone marrow transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 18(Suppl 3): S15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wiley J, Smith N, Leventhal B, Graham M, Strauss L, Hurwitz C, Modlin J, Mellits D, Baumgardner R, Corden B, Civin CI (1990) Invasive fungal disease in pediatric acute leukemia patients with fever and neutropenia during induction chemotherapy: a multivariate analysis. J Clin Oncol 8: 280–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Castagnola E, Cesaro S, Giacchino M, Livadiotti S, Tucci F, Zanazzo G, Caselli D, Caviglia I, Parodi S, Rondelli R et al (2006) Fungal infections in children with cancer: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25: 634–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lehrnbecher T, Foster C, Vazquez N, Mackall CL, Chanock SJ (1997) Therapy-induced alterations in host defense in children receiving chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 19: 399–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Groll AH, Just-Nuebling G, Kurz M, Mueller C, Nowak-Goettl U, Schwabe D, Shah PM, Kornhuber B (1997) Fluconazole versus nystatin in the prevention of candida infections in children and adolescents undergoing remission induction or consolidation chemotherapy for cancer. J Antimicrob Chemother 40: 855–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chiou CC, Seibel N, Derito FA, Bulas D, Walsh TJ, Groll AH. Concomitant Candida epiglottitis and disseminated Varicella zoster virus infection associated with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 28: 757–759Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lehrnbecher T, Groll AH, Channock SJ (1999) Treatment of fungal infections in immunocompromised children. Curr Opin Pediatr 10: 47–55Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Marina NM, Flynn PM, Rivera GK, Hughes WT (1991) Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans fungemia in children with leukemia. Cancer 68: 594–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ritter J, Roos N (1995) Special aspects related to invasive fungal infections in children with cancer. Bailleres Clin Infect Dis 2: 179–204Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Besnard M, Hartmann O, Valteau-Couanet D, Robert MC, Brugieres L, Lemerle J (1993) Systemic Candida infection in pediatric BM autotransplantation: clinical signs, outcome and prognosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 11: 465–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Klingspor L, Stintzing G, Tollemar J (1997) Deep Candida infection in children with leukaemia: clinical presentations, diagnosis and outcome. Acta Paediatr 86: 30–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Klingspor L, Stintzing G, Fasth A, Tollemar J (1996) Deep Candida infection in children receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplants: incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 17: 1043–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Viscoli C, Castagnola E, Giacchino M, Cesaro S, Properzi E, Tucci F, Mura RM, Alvisi P, Zanazzo G, Surico G et al (1999) Bloodstream infections in children with cancer: a multicentre surveillance study of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. Eur J Cancer 35: 770–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Krupova Y, Sejnova D, Dzatkova J, Kaiserova E, Kiskova M, Babela R, Mateicka F, Sabo A, Pichnova E, Jurga L et al (2000) Prospective study on fungemia in children with cancer: analysis of 35 cases and comparison with 130 fungemias in adults. Support Care Cancer 8: 427–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ridola V, Chachaty E, Raimondo G, Corradini N, Brugieres L, Valteau-Couanet D, Hartmann O (2004) Candida infections in children treated with conventional chemotherapy for solid tumors (transplant recipients excluded): The Institut Gustave Roussy Pediatrics Department experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42: 332–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Walsh TJ, Groll A, Hiemenz J, Fleming R, Roilides E, Anaissie E (2004) Infections due to emerging and uncommon medically important fungal pathogens. Clin Microbiol Infect 10(Suppl 1): 48–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zaoutis TE, Heydon K, Chu JH, Walsh TJ, Steinbach WJ (2006) Epidemiology, outcomes, and costs of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised children in the United States, 2000. Pediatrics 117: e711–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Eppes SC, Troutman JL, Gutman LT (1989) Outcome of treatment of candidemia in children whose central catheters were removed or retained. Pediatr Infect Dis J 8: 99–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dato V, Dajani A (1990) Candidemia in children with central venous catheters: role of catheter removal and amphotericin B therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 9: 309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lecciones JA, Lee JW, Navarro E, Witebsky FG, Marshall DJ, Steinberg SM, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ (1992) Vascular catheter-associated fungemia in cancer patients: analysis of 155 episodes. Rev Infect Dis 14: 875–883Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Groll AH, Ritter J (2005) Diagnosis and management of fungal infections and Pneumocystis pneumonitis in pediatric cancer patients — guidelines of the GPOH/DGPI Infectious Diseases Working Party. Klin Paediatr 217(Suppl 1): S37–S66Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Flynn PM, Marina NM, Rivera GK, Hughes WT (1993) Candida tropicalis infections in children with leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 10: 369–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Haron E, Feld R, Tuffnell P, Patterson B, Hasselback R, Matlow A (1987) Hepatic candidiasis: an increasing problem in immunocompromised patients. Am J Med 83: 17–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Thaler M, Pastakia B, Shawker TH, O’Leary T, Pizzo PA (1988) Hepatic candidiasis in cancer patients: the evolving picture of the syndrome. Ann Intern Med 108: 88–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Thaler M, Bacher J, O’Leary T, Pizzo PA (1988) Evaluation of single-drug and combination antifungal therapy in an experimental model of candidiasis in rabbits with prolonged neutropenia. J Infect Dis 158: 80–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Walsh TJ, Whitcomb PO, Revankar SG, Pizzo PA (1995) Successful treatment of hepatosplenic candidiasis through repeated cycles of chemotherapy and neutropenia. Cancer 76: 2357–2362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Groll AH, Kurz M, Schneider W, Witt V, Schmidt H, Schneider M, Schwabe D, Kornhuber B (1999) Five-year survey of invasive aspergillosis in a pediatric cancer center: Incidence, clinical presentation, management, and long-term survival. Mycoses 42: 431–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Abbasi S, Shenep JL, Hughes WT, Flynn PM (1999) Aspergillosis in children with cancer: A 34-year experience. Clin Infect Dis 29: 1210–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Grigull L, Beier R, Schrauder A, Kirschner P, Loening L, Jack T, Welte K, Sykora KW, Schrappe M (2003) Invasive fungal infections are responsible for one-fifth of the infectious deaths in children with ALL. Mycoses 46: 441–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Walmsley S, Devi S, King S, Schneider R, Richardson S, Ford-Jones L (1993) Invasive Aspergillus infections in a pediatric hospital: a ten-year review. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12: 673–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kavanagh KT, Hughes WT, Parham DM, Chanin LR (1991) Fungal sinusitis in immunocompromised children with neoplasms. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 100: 331–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Grossmann ME, Fithian EC, Behrens C, Bissinger J, Fracaro M, Neu HC (1985) Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in six leukemic children. J Am Acad Dermatol 12: 313–318Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    McCarty JM, Flam MS, Pullen G, Jones R, Kassel SH (1986) Outbreak of primary cutaneous aspergillosis related to intravenous armboards. J Pediatr 108: 721–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Barson WJ, Ruymann FB (1986) Palmar aspergillosis in immunocompromised children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 5: 264–268Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Allo M, Miller J, Townsend T, Tan C (1987) Primary cutaneous aspergillosis associated with Hickman intravenous catheters. N Engl J Med 315: 1105–1113Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wilson R, Feldman S (1979) Toxicity of amphotericin b in children with cancer. Am J Dis Child 133: 731–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hughes WT (1984) Hematogenous histoplasmosis in the immunocompromised child. J Pediatr 105: 569–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Allende M, Pizzo PA, Horowitz M, Pass HI, Walsh TJ (1993) Pulmonary cryptococcosis presenting as metastases in children with sarcomas. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12: 240–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lascari AD, Pearce JM, Swanson H (1997) Sudden death due to disseminated cryptococcosis in a child with leukemia in remission. South Med J 90: 1253–1254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Perfect JR, Schell WA (1996) The new fungal opportunists are coming. Clin Infect Dis 22(Suppl 2): S 112–118Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Walsh TJ, Newman KR, Moody M, Wharton RC, Wade JC (1986) Trichosporonosis in patients with neoplastic disease. Medicine 65: 268–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hoy J, Hsu K, Rolston K, Hopfer RL, Luna M, Bodey GP (1986) Trichosporon beigelii infection: A review. Rev Infect Dis 8: 959–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Walsh TJ, Melcher G, Rinaldi M, Lecciones J, McGough D, Lee J, Callender D, Rubin M, Pizzo PA (1990) Trichosporon beigelii: an emerging pathogen resistant to amphotericin B. J Clin Microbiol 28: 1616–1622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Walsh TJ, Lee JW, Melcher GP, Navarro E, Bacher J, Callender D, Reed KD, Wu T, Lopez-Berestein G, Pizzo PA (1992) Experimental disseminated trichosporonosis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits: implications for pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of an emerging opportunistic infection. J Infect Dis 166: 121–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Anaissie E, Gokoslan A, Hachem R, Rubin R (1992) Azole therapy for trichosporonosis: clinical evaluation of eight patients, experimental therapy for murine infection, and review. Clin Infect Dis 15: 781–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Melez KA, Cherry J, Sanchez C, Ettinger RB, Walsh TJ (1995) Successful outpatient treatment of Trichosporon beigelii peritonitis with oral fluconazole. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14: 1110–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Irwin RG, Rinaldi MG, Walsh TJ (2000) Zygomycosis of the respiratory tract. In: G Sarosi, S Davies (eds): Fungal Diseases of the Lung, 3rd. edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 163–185Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kline MW (1985) Mucormycosis in children: Review of the literature and report of cases. Pediatr Infect Dis 4: 672–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Boutati EI, Anaissie EJ (1997) Fusarium, a significant emerging pathogen in patients with hematologic malignancy: ten years’ experience at a cancer center and implications for management. Blood 90: 999–1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Martino P, Gastaldi R, Raccah R, Girmenia C (1994) Clinical patterns of Fusarium infections in immunocompromised patients. J Infect 28(Suppl 1): 7–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Walsh TJ, Lutsar I, Driscoll T, Dupont B, Roden M, Gharamani P, Hodges M, Groll AH, Perfect JR (2002) Voriconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis, scedosporiosis, and other invasive fungal infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21: 240–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Mueller FM, Groll AH, Walsh TJ (1999) Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections in HIV-infected children. Eur J Pediatr 158: 187–199Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Chiou C, Groll AH, Gonzales C, Callender C, Venzon D, Wood L, Walsh TJ (1999) Esophageal candidiasis in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical manifestations and risk factors. Clin Infect Dis 29: 1008Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Chiou CC, Groll AH, Mavrogiorgos N, Wood L, Walsh TJ (2002) Esophageal candidiasis in pediatric HIV-infected patients after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21: 388–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rex JH, Rinaldi MG, Pfaller MA (1995) Resistance of Candida species to fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Muller FM, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Brillante B, Roden M, Peter J, Chanock SJ, Walsh TJ (1999) Transmission of an azole-resistant isogenic strain of Candida albicans among human immunodeficiency virus-infected family members with oropharyngeal candidiasis. J Clin Microbiol 37: 3405–3408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Leibovitz E, Rigaud M, Chandwani S, Kaul A, Greco MA, Pollack H, Lawrence R, Di John D, Hanna B, Krasinski K, Borkowsky W (1991) Disseminated fungal infection in children with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10: 888–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Walsh TJ, Gonzalez C, Roilides E, Mueller BU, Ali N, Lewis LL, Whitcomb TO, Marshall DJ, Pizzo PA (1995) Fungemia in HIV-infected children: new epidemiologic patterns, emerging pathogens, and improved antifungal outcome. Clin Infect Dis 20: 900–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Gonzalez CE, Venzon D, Lee S, Mueller BU, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ (1996) Risk factors for fungemia in pediatric HIV-infection: a case control study. Clin Infect Dis 23: 515–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Roilides E, Holmes A, Blake C, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ (1993) Impairment of neutrophil fungicidal activity in HIV-infected children against Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. J Infect Dis 167: 905–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Roilides E, Holmes A, Blake C, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ (1993) Defective antifungal activity of monocyte-derived macrophages from human immunodeficiency virus-infected children against Aspergillus fumigatus. J Infect Dis 168: 1562–1565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Denning DW, Follansbee SE, Scolaro M, Norris S, Edelstein H, Stevens DA (1991) Pulmonary aspergillosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 324: 654–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Groll AH, Shah PM, Mentzel C, Schneider M, Just-Nuebling G, Huebner K (1996) Trends in the postmortem epidemiology of invasive fungal infections at a university hospital. J Infect 33: 23–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lortholary O, Meyonas MC, Dupont B, Cadranel J, Salmon-Ceron D, Peyramond D, Simonin D (1993) Invasive aspergillosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of 33 cases. Am J Med 95: 177–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wright M, Firkin S, Haller JO (1993) Aspergillosis in children with acquired immune deficiency. Pediatr Radiol 23: 492–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wrzolek MA, Brudkowska J, Kozlowski PB, Rao C, Anzil AP, Klein EA, Del Rosario C, Abdu A, Kaufman L, Chandler FW (1995) Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system in children with HIV infection: report of 9 autopsy cases and review of literature. Clin Neuropathol 14: 187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Shetty D, Giri N, Gonzalez CE, Pizzo, PA, Walsh, TJ (1997) Invasive aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 216–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Sirisanthana V; Sirisanthana T (1993) Penicillium marneffei infection in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12: 1021–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Abadi J, Nachman S, Kressel AB, Pirofski L (1999) Cryptococcosis in children with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 28: 309–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gonzalez CE, Shetty D, Lewis LL, Mueller BU, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ (1996) Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15: 796–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Zaoutis TE, Coffin SE, Chu JH, Heydon K, Zhao H, Greves HM, Walsh TJ (2005) Risk factors for mortality in children with candidemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24: 736–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Vincent JL, Bihari DJ, Suter PM, Bruining HA, White J, Nicolas-Chanoin MH, Wolff M, Spencer RC, Hemmer M (1995) The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study. EPIC International Advisory Committee. JAMA 274: 639–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Edmond MB, Wallace SE, McClish DK, Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Wenzel RP (1999) Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis. Clin Infect Dis 29: 239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Rangel-Frausto MS, Wiblin T, Blumberg HM, Saiman L, Patterson J, Rinaldi M, Pfaller M, Edwards JE Jr, Jarvis W, Dawson J, Wenzel RP (1999) National epidemiology of mycoses survey (NEMIS): variations in rates of bloodstream infections due to Candida species in seven surgical intensive care units and six neonatal intensive care units. Clin Infect Dis 29: 253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Fass RJ, Goff DA, Sierawski SJ (1996) Candida infections in the surgical intensive care unit. J Antimicrob Chemother 38: 915–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lipsett PA (2006) Surgical critical care: fungal infections in surgical patients. Crit Care Med 34(Suppl 9): S215–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Trick WE, Fridkin SK, Edwards JR, Hajjeh RA, Gaynes RP (2002) National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System Hospitals. Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989–1999. Clin Infect Dis 35: 627–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Zaoutis TE, Foraker E, McGowan KL, Mortensen J, Campos J, Walsh TJ, Klein JD (2005) Antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from pediatric patients: a survey of 4 children’s hospitals. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 52: 295–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Zaoutis TE, Coffin SE, Chu JH, Heydon K, Zhao H, Greves HM, Walsh TJ (2005) Risk factors for mortality in children with candidemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24: 736–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Joshi N, Caputo GM, Weitekamp WR, Krachmer AW (1999) Primary care: Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 341: 1906–1912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Stevens DA, Moss RB, Kurup VP, Knutsen AP, Greenberger P, Judson MA, Denning DW, Crameri R, Brody AS, Light M et al (2003) Participants in the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis — state of the art: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference. Clin Infect Dis 37(Suppl 3): S225–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kusenbach G, Skopnik H, Haase G, Friedrichs F, Dohmen H (1992) Exophiala dermatitidis pneumonia in cystic fibrosis. Eur J Pediatr 15: 344–346Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital (1998) Case 32-1998. N Engl J Med 339: 1228–1236Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Horn CK, Conway SP (1993) Candidaemia: risk factors in patients with cystic fibrosis who have totally implantable venous access systems. J Infect 26: 127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Groll AH, Kolve H (2004) Antifungal agents: in vitro susceptibility testing, pharmacodynamics, and prospects for combination therapy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23: 256–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Walsh TJ, Hiemenz JW, Anaissie E (1996) Recent progress and current problems in treatment of invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients. Infect Dis Clin North Am 10: 365–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Berenguer J, Buck M, Witebsky F, Stock F, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ (1993) Lysis-centrifugation blood cultures in the detection of tissue-proven invasive candidiasis. Disseminated versus single-organ infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 17: 103–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Pastakia B, Shawker TH, Thaler M, O’Leary T, Pizzo PA (1988) Hepatosplenic candidiasis: wheels within wheels. Radiology 166: 417–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Semelka RC, Shoenut JP, Greenberg HM, Bow EJ (1992) Detection of acute and treated lesions of hepatosplenic candidiasis: comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2: 341–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wheeler JH, Fishman EK (1996) Computed tomography in the management of chest infections: current status. Clin Infect Dis 23: 232–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sallah S, Semelka R, Kelekis N, Worawattanakul S, Sallah W (1998) Diagnosis and monitoring response to treatment of hepatosplenic candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia using magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Haematol 100: 77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Walsh TJ, Chanock SJ (1998) is of invasive fungal infections: advances in nonculture systems. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 18: 101–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Savage DG, Taylor P, Blackwell J, Chen F, Szydlo RM, Rule SA, Spencer A, Apperley JF, Goldman JM (1997) al sinusitis following allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant 19: 55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    von Eiff M, Zuehlsdorf M, Roos N, Hesse M, Schulten R, van de Loo J (1995) Pulmonary fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies — diagnostic approaches. Ann Hematol 70: 135–141Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Caillot D, Casasnovas O, Bernard A, Couaillier JF, Durand C, Cuisenier B, Solary E, Piard F, Petrella T, Bonnin A et al (1997) Improved management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in neutropenic patients using early thoracic computed tomography scan and surgery. J Clin Oncol 15: 139–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Caillot D, Couaillier JF, Bernard A, Casasnovas O, Denning DW, Mannone L, Lopez J, Couillault G, Piard F, Vagner O, Guy H (2001) Increasing volume and changing characteristics of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis on sequential thoracic computed tomography scans in patients with neutropenia. J Clin Oncol 19: 253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Rickerts V, Just-Nubling G, Konrad F, Kern J, Lambrecht E, Bohme A, Jacobi V, Bialek R (2006) Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients by semi nested PCR assay of tissue samples. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25: 8–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Einsele H, Hebart H, Roller G, Loffler J, Rothenhofer I, Muller CA, Bowden RA, van Burik J, Engelhard D, Kanz L, Schumacher U (1997) Detection and identification of fungal pathogens in blood by using molecular probes. J Clin Microbiol 35: 1353–1360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Demuynck H, Brock P, Verhoef G, Vandenberghe P, Van Eldere J, Verbist L, Boogaerts M (1999) Autopsy-controlled prospective evaluation of serial screening for circulating galactomannan by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for hematological patients at risk for invasive Aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 37: 3223–3228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Hebart H, Loffler J, Meisner C, Serey F, Schmidt D, Bohme A, Martin H, Engel A, Bunje D, Kern WV et al (2000) Early detection of Aspergillus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation by polymerase chain reaction screening. J Infect Dis 181: 1713–1719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Lagrou K, Van Eldere J, Boogaerts M (2001) Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: A prospective validation. Blood 97: 1604–1610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Maertens J, Theunissen K, Verhoef G, Verschakelen J, Lagrou K, Verbeken E, Wilmer A, Verhaegen J, Boogaerts M, Van Eldere J (2005) Galactomannan and computed tomography-based preemptive antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients at high risk for invasive fungal infection: a prospective feasibility study. Clin Infect Dis 41(9): 1242–1250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Bochennek K, Abolmaali N, Wittekindt B, Schwabe D, Klingebiel T, Lehrnbecher T (2006) Diagnostic approaches for immunocompromised paediatric patients with pulmonary infiltrates. Clin Microbiol Infect 12: 199–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Brajtburg J, Powderly WG, Kobayashi GS, Medoff G (1990) Amphotericin B: current understanding of mechanisms of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34: 183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Christiansen KJ, Bernard EM, Gold JWM, Armstrong D (1985) Distribution and activity of amphotericin B in humans. J Infect Dis 152: 1037–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bekersky I, Fielding RM, Dressler DE, Lee JW, Buell DN, Walsh TJ (2002) Plasma protein binding of amphotericin B and pharmacokinetics of bound versus unbound amphotericin B after administration of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and amphotericin B deoxycholate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 834–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bekersky I, Fielding RM, Dressler DE, Lee JW, Buell DN, Walsh TJ (2002) Pharmacokinetics, excretion, and mass balance of liposomal amphotericin B(AmBisome) and amphotericin B deoxycholate in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 828–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Starke JR, Mason EO Jr, Kramer WG, Kaplan SL (1987) Pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B in infants and children. J Infect Dis 155: 766–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Koren G, Lau A, Klein J, Golas C, Bologa-Campeanu M, Soldin S, MacLeod SM, Prober C (1988) Pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of amphotericin B in infants and children. J Pediatr 113: 559–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Benson JM, Nahata MC (1989) Pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33: 1989–1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Baley JE, Meyers C, Kliegman RM, Jacobs MR, Blumer JL (1990) Pharmacokinetics, outcome of treatment, and toxic effects of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine in neonates. J Pediatr 116: 791–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Nath CE, Shaw PJ, Gunning R, McLachlan AJ, Earl JW (1999) Amphotericin B in children with malignant disease: a comparison of the toxicities and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B administered in dextrose versus lipid emulsion. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43: 1417–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Arning M, Kliche KO, Heer-Sonderhoff AH, Wehmeier A (1995) Infusionrelated toxicity of three different amphotericin B formulations and its relation to cytokine plasma levels. Mycoses 38: 459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Walsh TJ, Finberg RW, Arndt C, Hiemenz J, Schwartz C, Bodensteiner D, Pappas P, Seibel N, Greenberg RN, Dummer S et al (1999) Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. N Engl J Med 340: 764–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Nath CE, McLachlan AJ, Shaw PJ, Gunning R, Earl JW (2001) Population pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B in children with malignant diseases. Br J Clin Pharmacol 52: 671–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Groll AH, Piscitelli SC, Walsh TJ (1998) Clinical pharmacology of systemic antifungal agents: a comprehensive review of agents in clinical use, current investigational compounds, and putative targets for antifungal drug development. Adv Pharmacol 44: 343–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Butler WT, Bennett JE, Alling DW, Wertlake PT, Utz JP, Hill GJ 2nd (1964) Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B: early and late effects in 81 patients. Ann Intern Med 62: 175–187Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Googe JH, Walterspiel JN (1988) Arrhythmia caused by amphotericin B in a neonate. Pediatr Infect Dis J 7: 73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sawaya BP, Briggs JP, Schnermann J (1995) Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: The adverse consequences of altered membrane properties. J Am Soc Nephrol 6: 154–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    White MH, Bowden RA, Sandler ES, Graham ML, Noskin GA, Wingard JR, Goldman M, van Burik JA, McCabe A, Lin JS et al (1998) Randomized, double-blind clinical trial of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion vs. amphotericin B in the empirical treatment of fever and neutropenia. Clin Infect Dis 27: 296–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Prentice HG, Hann IM, Herbrecht R, Aoun M, Kvaloy S, Catovsky D, Pinkerton CR, Schey SA, Jacobs F, Oakhill A et al (1997) A randomized comparison of liposomal versus conventional amphotericin B for the treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin in neutropenic patients. Br J Haematol 98: 711–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Baley JE, Kliegman RM, Fanaroff AA (1984) Disseminated fungal infections in very low-weight infants: therapeutic toxicity. Pediatrics 73: 153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Heidemann HT, Gerkens JF, Spickard WA Jackson EK, Branch RA (1983) Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity in humans decreased by salt repletion. Am J Med 75: 476–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Arning M, Scharf RE (1989) Prevention of amphotericin B induced nephrotoxicity by loading with sodium chloride: A report of 1291 days of treatment with amphotericin B without renal failure. Klin Wochenschr 67: 1020–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Holler B, Omar SA, Farid MD, Patterson MJ (2004) Effects of fluid and electrolyte management on amphotericin B-induced nephrotoxicity among extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 113: e608–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Groll AH, Walsh TJ (2002) Antifungal chemotherapy: Recent advances and current perspectives. Swiss Med Wkly 132: 303–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Hiemenz JW, Walsh TJ (1996) Lipid formulations of amphotericin B: recent progress and future directions. Clin Infect Dis 22(Suppl 2): S133–S144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Groll AH, Muller FM, Piscitelli SC, Walsh TJ (1998) Lipid formulations of amphotericin B: clinical perspectives for the management of invasive fungal infections in children with cancer. Klin Padiatr 210: 264–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Groll AH, Glasmacher A, Just-Nuebling G, Maschmeyer G, Walsh TJ (2003) Clinical pharmacology of antifungal compounds. Infect Dis Clin North Am 17: 159–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Anaissie E, White M, Uzun O (1995) Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) versus amphotericin B (AMB) for treatment of hematogenous and invasive candidiasis: a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. In: Abstracts of the 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, abstract LM 21, 330Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Amantea MA, Bowden RA, Forrest A, Working PK, Newman MS, Mamelok RD (1995) Population pharmacokinetics and renal function-sparing effects of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion in patients receiving bone marrow transplants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 2042–2047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sandler ES, Mustafa MM, Tkaczewski I, Graham ML, Morrison VA, Green M, Trigg M, Abboud M, Aquino VM, Gurwith M, Pietrelli L (2000) Use of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion in children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 22: 242–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Walsh TJ, Whitcomb P, Piscitelli S Figg WD, Hill S, Chanock SJ, Jarosinski P, Gupta R, Pizzo PA (1997) Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex in children with hepatosplenic candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41: 1944–1948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Walsh TJ, Seibel NL, Arndt C, Harris RE, Dinubile MJ, Reboli A, Hiemenz J, Chanock SJ (1999) Amphotericin B lipid complex in pediatric patients with invasive fungal infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18: 702–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Wiley JM, Seibel NL, Walsh TJ (2005) Efficacy and safety of amphotericin B lipid complex in 548 children and adolescents with invasive fungal infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24: 167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Wurthwein G, Groll AH, Hempel G, Adler-Shohet FC, Lieberman JM, Walsh TJ (2005) Population pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex in neonates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 5092–5098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Seibel N, Walsh TJ (1999) Safety, tolerance and pharmacokinetics of liposoml amphotericin B in children and adolescents. In: Abstracts of Focus on Fungal Infections. Imedex, Alpharetta, 15Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Hong Y, Shaw PJ, Nath CE, Yadav SP, Stephen KR, Earl JW, McLachlan AJ (2006) Population pharmacokinetics of liposomal amphotericin B in pediatric patients with malignant diseases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 935–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Meunier F, Prentice HG, Ringden O (1991) Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisomeℳ): safety data from a phase II/III clinical trial. J Antimicrob Chemother 28(Suppl B): 83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Pasic S, Flannagan L, Cant AJ (1997) Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisomeℳ) is safe in bone marrow transplantation for primary immunodeficiency. Bone Marrow Transplant 19: 1229–1232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ringden O (1993) Clinical use of AmBisomeℳ with special emphasis on experience in children. Bone Marrow Transplant 12(Suppl 4): S149–S150Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Kolve H, Ritter J, Juergens H, Groll AH (2005) Safety, tolerance and outcome of treatment with liposomal amphotericin B in pediatric cancer/HSCT patients. Bone Marrow Transplant 35(Suppl 2): S264–S265Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Juster-Reicher A, Leibovitz E, Linder N, Amitay M, Flidel-Rimon O, Even-Tov S, Mogilner B, Barzilai A (2000) Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in the treatment of neonatal candidiasis in very low birth weight infants. Infection 28: 223–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Juster-Reicher A, Flidel-Rimon O, Amitay M, Even-Tov S, Shinwell E, Leibovitz E (2003) High-dose liposomal amphotericin B in the therapy of systemic candidiasis in neonates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22: 603–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Johnson MD, Drew RH, Perfect JR (1998) Chest discomfort associated with liposomal amphotericin B: report of three cases and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy 18: 1053–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Roden MM, Nelson LD, Knudsen TA, Jarosinski PF, Starling JM, Shiflett SE, Calis K, DeChristoforo R, Donowitz GR, Buell D, Walsh TJ (2003) Triad of acute infusion-related reactions associated with liposomal amphotericin B: analysis of clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Clin Infect Dis 36: 1213–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Bowden R, Chandrasekar P, White MH, Li X, Pietrelli L, Gurwith M, van Burik JA, Laverdiere M, Safrin S, Wingard JR (2002) A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion versus amphotericin B for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis 35: 359–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Cornely OA, Maertens J, Bresnik M, Herbrecht R (2005) Liposomal amphotericin B as initial therapy for invasive filamentous fungal infections: a randomized, prospective trial of a high loading regimen versus a standard dosing (AmBiLOAD Trial). Blood 106: 900aGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Ruhnke M, Kuse E, Chetchotisad H, Arns da Cunha C, Diekmann-Berndt H (2005) Comparison of micafungin and liposomal amphotericin B for invasive candidiasis. In: Abstracts of the 45th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, M-722cGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Goa KL, Barradell LB, Fluconazole (1995) An update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use in major superficial and systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Drugs 50: 658–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Groll AH, Walsh, TJ (1998) Antifungal triazoles. In: VL Yu, TC Merigan, S Barriere (eds): Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and Vaccines. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1158–1170Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Lee JW, Seibel NL, Amantea M, Whitcomb P, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ (1992) Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in children with neoplastic diseases. J Pediatr 120: 987–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Brammer KW, Coates PE (1994) Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in pediatric patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13: 325–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Saxen H, Hoppu K, Pohjavuori M (1993) Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in very low birth weight infants during the first two weeks of life. Clin Pharmacol Ther 54: 269–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Krzeska I, Yeates RA, Pfaff G (1993) Single dose intravenous pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in infants. Drugs Exp Clin Res 19: 267–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Seay RE, Larson TA, Toscano JP, Bostrom BC, O’Leary MC, Uden DL (1995) Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in immunocompromised children with leukemia or other hematologic diseases. Pharmacotherapy 15: 52–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Nahata MC, Tallian KB, Force RW (1999) Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in young infants. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 24: 155–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Louie A, Drusano GL, Banerjee P, Liu QF, Liu W, Kaw P, Shayegani M, Taber H, Miller MH (1998) Pharmacodynamics of fluconazole in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 1105–1109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Andes D, van Ogtrop M (1999) Characterization and quantitation of the pharmacodynamics of fluconazole in a neutropenic murine disseminated candidiasis infection model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43: 2116–2120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Anaissie EJ, Kontoyiannis DP, Huls C, Vartivarian SE, Karl C, Prince RA, Basso J, Bodey GP (1995) Safety, plasma concentrations, and efficacy of highdose fluconazole in invasive mold infections. J Infect Dis 172: 599–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Novelli V, Holzel H (1999) Safety and tolerability of fluconazole in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43: 1955–1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Como JA, Dismukes WE (1994) Oral azole drugs as systemic antifungal therapy. N Engl J Med 330: 263–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Piscitelli SC, Flexner C, Minor JR, Polis MA, Masur H (1996) Drug interactions in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 23: 685–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, Pappas PG, van der Horst CM, Edwards JE, Washburn RG, Scheld WM, Karchmer AW, Dine AP (1994) A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. N Engl J Med 331: 1325–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Phillips P, Shafran S, Garber G, Rotstein C, Smaill F, Fong I, Salit I, Miller M, Williams K, Conly JM et al (1997) Multicenter randomized trial of fluconazole versus amphotericin B for treatment of candidemia in non-neutropenic patients. Canadian Candidemia Study Group. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16: 337–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Anaissie EJ, Darouiche RO, Abi-Said D, Uzun O, Mera J, Gentry LO, Williams T, Kontoyannis DP, Karl CL, Bodey GP (1996) Management of invasive candidal infections: results of a prospective, randomized, multicenter study of fluconazole versus amphotericin B and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 23: 964–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Anaissie EJ, Vartivarian SE, Abi-Said D, Uzun O, Pinczowski H, Kontoyiannis DP, Khoury P, Papadakis K, Gardner A, Raad II et al (1996) Fluconazole versus amphotericin B in the treatment of hematogenous candidiasis: a matched cohort study. Am J Med 101: 170–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Flynn PM, Cunningham CK, Kerkering T, San Jorge AR, Peters VB, Pitel PA, Harris J, Gilbert G, Castagnaro L, Robinson P (1995) Oropharyngeal candidiasis in immunocompromised children: a randomized, multicenter study of orally administered fluconazole suspension versus nystatin. J Pediatr 127: 322–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Hernandez-Sempelayo T (1994) Fluconazole vs. ketoconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13: 340–344Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Marchisio P, Principi N (1994) Treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected children with oral fluconazole. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13: 338–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Groll A, Nowak-Goettl U, Wildfeuer A, Weise M, Schwabe D, Gerein V, Kornhuber B (1992) Fluconazole treatment of oropharyngeal candidosis in pediatric cancer patients with severe mucositis following antineoplastic chemotherapy. Mycoses 35(Suppl): 35–40Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Pappas PG, Rex JH, Sobel JD, Filler SG, Dismukes WE, Walsh TJ, Edwards JE (2004) Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for treatment of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 38: 161–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Fasano C, O’Keeffe J, Gibbs D (1994) Fluconazole treatment of neonates and infants with severe fungal infections not treatable with conventional agents. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13: 351–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Bilgen H, Ozek E, Korten V, Ener B, Molbay D (1995) Treatment of systemic neonatal candidiasis with fluconazole. Infection 23: 394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Driessen M, Ellis JB, Muwazi F, De Villiers FP (1997) The treatment of systemic candidiasis in neonates with oral fluconazole. Ann Trop Paediatr 7: 263–271Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Driessen M, Ellis JB, Cooper PA, Wainer S, Muwazi F, Hahn D, Gous H, De Villiers FP (1996) Fluconazole vs. amphotericin B for the treatment of neonatal fungal septicemia: a prospective randomized trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15: 1107–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Wainer S, Cooper PA, Gouws H, Akierman A (1997) Prospective study of fluconazole therapy in systemic neonatal fungal infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 763–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Huttova M, Hartmanova I, Kralinsky K, Filka J, Uher J, Kurak J, Krizan S, Krcmery V Jr (1998) Candida fungemia in neonates treated with fluconazole: report of forty cases, including eight with meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17: 1012–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Anaissie E, Bodey GP, Kantarjian H, David C, Barnett K, Bow E, Defelice R, Downs N, File T, Karam G (1991) Fluconazole therapy for chronic disseminated candidiasis in patients with leukemia and prior amphotericin B therapy. Am J Med 91: 142–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Kauffman CA, Bradley SF, Ross SC, Weber DR (1991) Hepatosplenic candidiasis: successful treatment with fluconazole. Am J Med 91: 137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    van der Horst CM, Saag MS, Cloud GA, Hamill RJ, Graybill JR, Sobel JD, Johnson PC, Tuazon CU, Kerkering T, Moskovitz BL et al (1997) Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 337: 15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Saag MS, Cloud GA, Graybill JR, Sobel JD, Tuazon CU, Johnson PC, Fessel WJ, Moskovitz BL, Wiesinger B, Cosmatos D et al (1999) A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 28: 291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Galgiani JN, Catanzaro A, Cloud GA, Higgs J, Friedman BA, Larsen RA, Graybill JR (1993) Fluconazole therapy for coccidioidal meningitis. Ann Intern Med 119: 28–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Catanzaro A, Galgiani JN, Levine BE, Sharkey-Mathis PK, Fierer J, Stevens DA, Chapman SW, Cloud G (1995) Fluconazole in the treatment of chronic pulmonary and non-meningeal disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Am J Med 98: 249–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Diaz M, Negroni R, Montero-Gei F, Castro LG, Sampaio SA, Borelli D, Restrepo A, Franco L, Bran JL, Arathoon EG (1992) A Pan-American 5-year study of fluconazole therapy for deep mycoses in the immunocompetent host. Clin Infect Dis 14(Suppl 1): S68–S76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Pappas PG, Bradsher RW, Chapman SW, Kauffman CA, Dine A, Cloud GA, Dismukes WE (1995) Treatment of blastomycosis with fluconazole: a pilot study. Clin Infect Dis 20: 267–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Pappas PG, Bradsher RW, Kauffman CA, Cloud GA, Thomas CJ, Campbell GD Jr, Chapman SW, Newman C, Dismukes WE (1997) Treatment of blastomycosis with higher doses of fluconazole. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 25: 200–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Wheat J, MaWhinney S, Hafner R, McKinsey D, Chen D, Korzun A, Shakan KJ, Johnson P, Hamill R, Bamberger D et al (1997) Treatment of histoplasmosis with fluconazole in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Clinical Trials Group and Mycoses Study Group. Am J Med 103: 223–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    McKinsey DS, Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, Cloud GA, Girard WM, Sharkey PK, Hamill RJ, Thomas CJ, Dismukes WE (1996) Fluconazole therapy for histoplasmosis. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 23: 996–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, McKinsey DS, Greenfield RA, Perfect JR, Cloud GA, Thomas CJ, Dismukes WE (1996) Treatment of lymphocutaneous and visceral sporotrichosis with fluconazole. Clin Infect Dis 22: 46–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Powderly WG, Finkelstein D, Feinberg J, Frame P, He W, van der Horst C, Koletar SL, Eyster ME, Carey J, Waskin H (1995) A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with AIDS. N Engl J Med 332: 700–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Ninane J, Gluckman E, Hann I, Gibson BS, Stevens RF, Darbyshire PJ, Ball LM, Guitierrez AN, Cubbels J, Arce JMI (1994) A multicentre study of fluconazole versus oral polyenes in the prevention of fungal infection in children with hematological or oncological malignancies. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13: 330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Groll AH, Just-Nuebling G, Kurz M, Mueller C, Nowak-Goettl U, Schwabe D, Shah PM, Kornhuber B (1997) Fluconazole versus nystatin in the prevention of candida infections in children and adolescents undergoing remission induction or consolidation chemotherapy for cancer. J Antimicrob Chemother 40: 855–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Goodman JL Winston DJ, Greenfield RA, Chandrasekar PH, Fox B, Kaizer H, Shadduck RK, Shea TC, Stiff P, Friedman DJ (1992) A controlled trial of fluconazole to prevent fungal infections in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 326: 845–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Slavin MA, Osborne B, Adams R, Levenstein MJ, Schoch HG, Feldman AR, Meyers JD, Bowden RA (1995) Efficacy and safety of fluconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after marrow transplantation-a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Infect Dis 171: 1545–1552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Kaufman D, Boyle R, Hazen KC, Patrie JT, Robinson M, Donowitz LG (2001) Fluconazole prophylaxis against fungal colonization and infection in preterm infants. N Engl J Med 345: 1660–1666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Kaufman D, Boyle R, Hazen KC, Patrie JT, Robinson M, Grossman LB (2005) Twice weekly fluconazole prophylaxis for prevention of invasive Candida infection in high-risk infants of < 1000 grams birth weight. J Pediatr 147: 172–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Bertini G, Perugi S, Dani C, Filippi L, Pratesi S, Rubaltelli FF (2005) Fluconazole prophylaxis prevents invasive fungal infection in high-risk, very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 147: 162–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Healy CM, Baker CJ, Zaccaria E, Campbell JR (2005) Impact of fluconazole prophylaxis on incidence and outcome of invasive candidiasis in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr 147: 166–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Manzoni P, Arisio R, Mostert M, Leonessa M, Farina D, Latino MA, Gomirato G (2006) Prophylactic fluconazole is effective in preventing fungal colonization and fungal systemic infections in preterm neonates: a single-center, 6-year, retrospective cohort study. Pediatrics 117: e22–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Uko S, Soghier LM, Vega M, Marsh J, Reinersman GT, Herring L, Dave VA, Nafday S, Brion LP (2006) Targeted short-term fluconazole prophylaxis among very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 117: 1243–1252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Barone JA, Moskovitz BL, Guarnieri J, Hassell AE, Colaizzi JL, Bierman RH, Jessen L (1998) Enhanced bioavailability of itraconazole in hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin solution versus capsules in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 1862–1865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Reynes J, Bazin C, Ajana F, Datry A, LeMoing JP, Chwetzoff E, Levron JC (1997) Pharmacokinetics of itraconazole (oral solution) in two groups of human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with oral candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41: 2554–2558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Vandewoude K, Vogelaers D, Decruyenaere J, Jaqmin P, De Beule K, Van Peer A, Woestenborghs R, Groen K, Colardyn F (1997) Concentrations in plasma and safety of 7 days of intravenous itraconazole followed by 2 weeks of oral itraconazole solution in patients in intensive care units. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41: 2714–2718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Boogaerts M, Winston DJ, Bow EJ, Garber G, Reboli AC, Schwarer AP, Novitzky N, Boehme A, Chwetzoff E, De Beule K (2001) Itraconazole Neutropenia Study Group. Intravenous and oral itraconazole versus intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate as empirical antifungal therapy for persistent fever in neutropenic patients with cancer who are receiving broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 135: 412–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Caillot D, Bassaris H, McGeer A, Arthur C, Prentice HG, Seifert W, De Beule K (2001) Intravenous itraconazole followed by oral itraconazole in the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies, chronic granulomatous disease, or AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 33: e83–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    de Repentigny L, Ratelle J, Leclerc JM, Cornu G, Sokal EM, Jacqmin P, De Beule K (1998) Repeated-dose pharmacokinetics of an oral solution of itraconazole in infants and children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 404–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Groll AH, Mickiene D, McEvoy M, Dad L, Townley E, Piscitelli S, Wood L, Walsh TJ (2002) Safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cyclodextrin itraconazole in pediatric patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 2554–2563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Prentice AG, Warnock DW, Johnson SA, Taylor PC, Oliver DA (1995) Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of an oral solution of itraconazole in patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. J Antimicrob Chemother 36: 657–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Foot A, Veys P, Gibson B (1999) Itraconazole oral solution as antifungal prophylaxis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation or intensive chemotherapy for haematological disorders. Bone Marrow Transplant 24: 1089–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Abdel-Rahman SM, Powell DA, Nahata MC (1998) Efficacy of itraconazole in children with Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 38: 443–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Grant SM, Clissold SP (1989) Itraconazole: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in superficial and systemic mycoses. Drugs 37: 310–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Aanpreung P, Veerakul G (1997) Itraconazole for treatment of oral candidosis in pediatric cancer patients. J Med Assoc Thai 80: 358–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Denning DW, Tucker RM, Hanson LH, Stevens DA (1989) Treatment of invasive aspergillosis with itraconazole. Am J Med 86: 791–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Stevens DA, Lee JY (1997) Analysis of compassionate use itraconazole therapy for invasive aspergillosis by the NIAID Mycoses Study Group criteria. Arch Intern Med 157: 1857–1862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Sharkey PA, Graybill JR, Rinaldi MG, Stevens DA, Tucker RM, Peterie JD, Hoeprich PD, Greer DL, Frenkel L, Counts GW (1990) Itraconazole treatment of phaeohyphomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 577–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Restrepo A, Robledo J, Gomez I, Tabares AM, Gutierrez R (1986) Itraconazole therapy in lymphangitic and cutaneous sporotrichosis. Arch Dermatol 122: 413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Naranjo MS, Trujillo M, Munera MI, Restrepo P, Gomez I, Restrepo A (1990) Treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis with itraconazole. J Med Vet Mycol 28: 67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Negroni R, Palmieri O, Koren F, Tiraboschi IN, Galimberti RL (1987) Oral treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis with itraconazole in humans. Rev Infect Dis 9(Suppl 1): S47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Dismukes WE, Bradsher RW, Cloud GC, Kauffman CA, Chapman SW, George RB, Stevens DA, Girard WM, Saag MS, Bowles-Patton C (1992) Itraconazole therapy for blastomycosis and histoplasmosis. Am J Med 93: 489–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Wheat J, Hafner R, Korzun AH, Limjoco MT, Spencer P, Larsen RA, Hecht FM, Powderly W (1995) Itraconazole treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med 98: 336–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Wheat J, Hafner R, Wulfsohn M, Spencer P, Squires K, Powderly W, Wong B, Rinaldi M, Saag M, Hamill R (1993) Prevention of relapse of histoplasmosis with itraconazole in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 118: 610–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Tucker RM, Denning DW, Arathoon EG, Rinaldi MG, Stevens DA (1990) Itraconazole therapy for nonmeningeal coccidioidomycosis: clinical and laboratory observations. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 593–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Tucker RM, Denning DW, Dupont B, Stevens DA (1990) Itraconazole therapy for chronic coccidioidal meningitis. Ann Intern Med 112: 108–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Graybill JR, Stevens DA, Galgiani JN, Dismukes WE, Cloud GA (1990) Itraconazole treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Am J Med 89: 282–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Menichetti F, Del Favero A, Martino P, Bucaneve G, Micozzi A, Girmenia C, Barbabietola G, Pagano L, Leoni P, Specchia G et al (1999) Itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis for fungal infections in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial. GIMEMA Infection Program. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell’ Adulto. Clin Infect Dis 28: 250–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Winston DJ, Maziarz RT, Chandrasekar PH, Lazarus HM, Goldman M, Blumer JL, Leitz GJ, Territo MC (2003) Intravenous and oral itraconazole versus intravenous and oral fluconazole for long-term antifungal prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients. A multicenter, randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 138: 705–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Marr KA, Crippa F, Leisenring W, Hoyle M, Boeckh M, Balajee SA, Nichols WG, Musher B, Corey L (2004) Itraconazole versus fluconazole for prevention of fungal infections in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplants. Blood 103: 1527–1533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Glasmacher A, Prentice A, Gorschluter M, Engelhart S, Hahn C, Djulbegovic B, Schmidt-Wolf IG (2003) Itraconazole prevents invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients treated for hematologic malignancies: evidence from a meta-analysis of 3,597 patients. J Clin Oncol 21: 4615–4626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Francis P, Walsh TJ (1992) Evolving role of flucytosine in immunocompromised patients: new insights into safety, pharmacokinetics, and antifungal therapy. Clin Infect Dis 15: 1003–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Polak A (1990) Mode of action studies. In: JF Ryley (ed): Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 96. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 153–182Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Bennett JE, Dismukes WE, Duma RJ, Medoff G, Sande MA, Gallis H, Leonard J, Fields BT, Bradshaw M, Haywood H et al (1979) A comparison of amphotericin B alone and in combination with flucytosine in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med 301: 126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    van der Horst CM, Saag MS, Cloud GA, Hamill RJ, Graybill JR, Sobel JD, Johnson PC, Tuazon CU, Kerkering T, Moskovitz BL et al (1997) Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med 337: 15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Larsen RA, Bozette SA, Jones BE, Haghighat D, Leal MA, Forthal D, Bauer M, Tilles JG, McCutchan JA, Leedom JM (1994) Fluconazole combined with flucytosine for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 19: 741–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Johnson LB, Kauffman CA (2003) Voriconazole: a new triazole antifungal agent. Clin Infect Dis 36: 630–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Purkins L, Wood N, Ghahramani P, Greenhalgh K, Allen MJ, Kleinermans D (2002) Pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole following intravenous-to oral-dose escalation regimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 2546–2553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Ally R, Schurmann D, Kreisel W, Carosi G, Aguirrebengoa K, Dupont B, Hodges M, Troke P, Romero AJ; Esophageal Candidiasis Study Group (2001) A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial of voriconazole and fluconazole in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis 33: 1447–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Herbrecht R, Denning DW, Patterson TF, Bennett JE, Greene RE, Oestmann JW, Kern WV, Marr KA, Ribaud P, Lortholary O et al (2002) Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. N Engl J Med 347: 408–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Walsh TJ, Pappas P, Winston DJ, Lazarus HM, Petersen F, Raffalli J, Yanovich S, Stiff P, Greenberg R, Donowitz G et al (2002) Voriconazole compared with liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with neutropenia and persistent fever. N Engl J Med 346: 225–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Hegener P, Troke PF, Fatkenheuer G, Diehl V, Ruhnke M (1998) Treatment of fluconazole-resistant candidiasis with voriconazole in patients with AIDS. AIDS 12: 2227–2228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Denning DW, Ribaud P, Milpied N, Caillot D, Herbrecht R, Thiel E, Haas A, Ruhnke M, Lode H (2002) Efficacy and safety of voriconazole in the treatment of acute invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 34: 563–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Perfect JR, Marr KA, Walsh TJ, Greenberg RN, DuPont B, de la Torre-Cisneros J, Just-Nubling G, Schlamm HT, Lutsar I, Espinel-Ingroff A, Johnson E (2003) Voriconazole treatment for less-common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis 36: 1122–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Kullberg BJ, Sobel JD, Ruhnke M, Pappas PG, Viscoli C, Rex JH, Cleary JD, Rubinstein E, Church LW, Brown JM et al (2005) Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet 366: 1435–1442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Schwartz S, Ruhnke M, Ribaud P, Corey L, Driscoll T, Cornely OA, Schuler U, Lutsar I, Troke P, Thiel E (2005) Improved outcome in central nervous system aspergillosis, using voriconazole treatment. Blood 106: 2641–2645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Walsh TJ, Karlsson MO, Driscoll T, Arguedas AG, Adamson P, Saez-Llorens X, Vora AJ, Arrieta AC, Blumer J, Lutsar I et al (2004) Pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous voriconazole in children after single-or multiple-dose administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 2166–2172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Walsh TJ, Driscoll TA, Arietta AC, Klein N, Bradley J, Jafri H, Schlamm H, Wood N, Milligan P, Lutsar I (2006) Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of voriconazole in hospitalized children. In: Abstracts of the 46th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, Abstr.M887, 45Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Walsh TJ, Lutsar I, Driscoll T, Dupont B, Roden M, Ghahramani P, Hodges M, Groll AH, Perfect JR (2002) Voriconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis, scedosporiosis and other invasive fungal infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21: 240–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Kolve H, Lehrnbecher T, Ehlert K, Paulussen M, Bielack S, Vormoor J, Walsh TJ, Groll AH (2004) Safety, tolerance and plasma concentrations of voriconazole in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 10(Suppl 3): 40–41Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Groll AH, Walsh TJ (2005) Posaconazole: clinical pharmacology and potential for management of fungal infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 3: 467–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Sabatelli F, Patel R, Mann PA, Mendrick CA, Norris CC, Hare R, Loebenberg D, Black TA, McNicholas PM (2006) In vitro activities of posaconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against a large collection of clinically important molds and yeasts. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 2009–2015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Ezzet F, Wexler D, Courtney R, Krishna G, Lim J, Laughlin M (2005) Oral bioavailability of posaconazole in fasted healthy subjects: comparison between three regimens and basis for clinical dosage recommendations. Clin Pharmacokinet 44: 211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Krieter P, Flannery B, Musick T, Gohdes M, Martinho M, Courtney R (2004) Disposition of posaconazole following single-dose oral administration in healthy subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 3543–3551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Raad II, Graybill JR, Bustamante AB, Cornely OA, Gaona-Flores V, Afif C, Graham DR, Greenberg RN, Hadley S, Langston A et al (2006) Safety of long-term oral posaconazole use in the treatment of refractory invasive fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis 42: 1726–1734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Vasquez JA, Northland R, Miller S (2000) Posaconazole compared to fluconazole for oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. In: Abstracts of the 40th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, Abstr. 1107, 372Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Skiest DJ, Vazquez JA, Graybill JR (2004) Open label trial of posaconazole for azole-refractory oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS subjects: final analysis. In: Abstracts of the 44th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, Abstr. M-1027, 415Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Raad I, Chapman S, Bradsher R, Morrison V, Goldman M, Graybill J (2004) Posaconazole salvage therapy for invasive fungal infections. In: Abstracts of the 44th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, Abstr. M-669, 412Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Vazquez JA, Skiest DJ, Nieto L, Northland R, Sanne I, Gogate J, Greaves W, Isaacs R (2006) A multicenter randomized trial evaluating posaconazole versus fluconazole for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in subjects with HIV/AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 42: 1179–1186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    van Burik JA, Hare RS, Solomon HF, Corrado ML, Kontoyiannis DP (2006) Posaconazole is effective as salvage therapy in zygomycosis: a retrospective summary of 91 cases. Clin Infect Dis 42: e61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Ullmann AJ, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, Chandrasekar P, Langston A, Tarantolo S (2005) A multicenter trial of posaconazole vs. fluconazole for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with GVHD. Mycoses 48(Suppl 2): 26–27Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Cornely OA, Maertens J, Winston D, Perfect J, Helfgott D, Ullmann AJ, Holowiecki J, Stockelberg D, Goh YT, Petrini M et al (2005) Posaconazole vs standard azole therapy for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections among high-risk neutropenic patients: Results of a Randomized, multicenter trial. Blood 106: 1844Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    Krishna G, Wexler D, Courtney R (2004) Posaconazole plasma concentrations in pediatric subjects with invasive fungal infections. In: Abstracts of the 44th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, Abstr. A-41, 10Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Blumer J, Hare R, Krishna G (2005) Efficacy of posaconazole salvage therapy in pediatric subjects with invasive fungal infections. In: Proceedings of the 15th European Congress for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Abstr. P744, 210Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Groll AH, Walsh TJ (2001) Caspofungin: pharmacology, safety and therapeutic potential in superficial and invasive fungal infections. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 10: 1545–1558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Stone JA, Holland SD, Wickersham PJ, Sterrett A, Schwartz M, Bonfiglio C Hesney M, Winchell GA, Deutsch PJ, Greenberg H et al (2002) Single-and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in healthy men. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 739–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Sable CA, Nguyen BY, Chodakewitz JA, DiNubile MJ (2002) Safety and tolerability of caspofungin acetate in the treatment of fungal infections. Transpl Infect Dis 4: 25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Marr KA, Hachem R, Papanicolaou G, Somani J, Arduino JM, Lipka CJ, Ngai AL, Kartsonis N, Chodakewitz J, Sable C (2004) Retrospective study of the hepatic safety profile of patients concomitantly treated with caspofungin and cyclosporin A. Transpl Infect Dis 6: 110–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Trenschel R, Ditschkowski M, Elmaagacli AH, Koldehoff M, Ottinger H, Steckel N, Hlinka M, Peceny R, Rath PM, Dermoumi H, Beelen DW (2005) Caspofungin as second-line therapy for fever of unknown origin or invasive fungal infection following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 35: 583–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Groll AH, Attarbaschi A, Schuster FR, Herzog N, Grigull L, Dworzak MN, Beutel K, Laws HJ, Lehrnbecher T (2006) Treatment with caspofungin in immunocompromised paediatric patients: a multicentre survey. J Antimicrob Chemother 57: 527–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Arathoon EG, Gotuzzo E, Noriega LM, Berman RS, DiNubile MJ, Sable CA (2002) Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of caspofungin versus amphotericin B for treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 451–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Villanueva A, Arathoon EG, Gotuzzo E, Berman RS, DiNubile MJ, Sable CA (2001) A randomized double-blind study of caspofungin versus amphotericin for the treatment of candidal esophagitis. Clin Infect Dis 33: 1529–1535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Villanueva A, Gotuzzo E, Arathoon EG, Noriega LM, Kartsonis NA, Lupinacci RJ, Smietana JM, DiNubile MJ, Sable CA (2002) A randomized double-blind study of caspofungin versus fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Am J Med 113: 294–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Mora-Duarte J, Betts R, Rotstein C, Colombo AL, Thompson-Moya L, Smietana J, Lupinacci R, Sable C, Kartsonis N, Perfect J, Caspofungin Invasive Candidiasis Study Group (2002) Comparison of caspofungin and amphotericin B for invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med 347: 2020–2029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Maertens J, Raad I, Petrikkos G, Boogaerts M, Selleslag D, Petersen FB, Sable CA, Kartsonis NA, Ngai A, Taylor A et al (2004) Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. Clin Infect Dis 39: 1563–1571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Walsh TJ, Teppler H, Donowitz GR, Maertens JA, Baden LR, Dmoszynska A (2004) Caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. N Engl J Med 351: 1391–1402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Walsh TJ, Adamson PC, Seibel NL, Flynn PM, Neely MN, Schwartz C, Shad A, Kaplan SL, Roden MM, Stone JA et al (2005) Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of caspofungin in children and adolescents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 4536–4545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Franklin JA, McCormick J, Flynn PM (2003) Retrospective study of the safety of caspofungin in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22: 747–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Natarajan G, Lulic-Botica M, Rongkavilit C, Pappas A, Bedard M (2005) Experience with caspofungin in the treatment of persistent fungemia in neonates. J Perinatol 25: 770–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Odio CM, Araya R, Pinto LE, Castro CE, Vasquez S, Alfaro B, Saenz A, Herrera ML, Walsh TJ (2004) Caspofungin therapy of neonates with invasive candidiasis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 23: 1093–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Odio CM, Pinto LE, Alfaro B, Vasquez S, Castro CE, Hernandez M, Herrera ML, Bi S, Kartsonis N, Stone J (2005) Pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in six premature neonates with invasive candidiasis at a neonatal intensive care unit. In: Abstracts of the 45th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, LB-16-2005Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Krause DS, Simjee AE, van Rensburg C, Viljoen J, Walsh TJ, Goldstein BP, Wible M, Henkel T (2004) A randomized, double-blind trial of anidulafungin versus fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 39: 770–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Krause DS, Reinhardt J, Vazquez JA, Reboli A, Goldstein BP, Wible M, Henkel T; Anidulafungin Invasive Candidiasis Study Group (2004) Phase 2, randomized, dose-ranging study evaluating the safety and efficacy of anidulafungin in invasive candidiasis and candidemia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 2021–2024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Reboli A, Rotstein C, Pappas P, Schranz J, Krause D, Walsh TJ (2005) Anidulafungin vs. fluconazole for treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In: Abstracts of the 45th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 19Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Thye D, Marbury T, Kilfoil T, Kilfoil G, Henkel T (2002) Anidulafungin: Pharmacokinetics in subjects receiving hemodialysis. In: Abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 19Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Thye D, Marbury T, Kilfoil T, Kilfoil G, Henkel T (2002) Anidulafungin: Pharmacokinetics in subjects with renal impairment. In: Abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 19Google Scholar
  370. 370.
    Thye D, Kilfoil T, Kilfoil G, Henkel T (2002) Anidulafungin: Pharmacokinetics in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. In: Abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 19Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    Benjamin DK Jr, Driscoll T, Seibel NL, Gonzalez CE, Roden MM, Kilaru R, Clark K, Dowell JA, Schranz J, Walsh TJ (2006) Safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous anidulafungin in children with neutropenia at high risk for invasive fungal infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 632–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Pettengell K, Mynhardt J, Kluyts T, Lau W, Facklam D, Buell D; FK463 South African Study Group (2004) Successful treatment of oesophageal candidiasis by micafungin: a novel systemic antifungal agent. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 20: 475–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Suleiman J, della Negra M, Llanos-Cuentas A (2002) Open label study of micafungin in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. In: Abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, M892, 394Google Scholar
  374. 374.
    de Wet N, Llanos-Cuentas A, Suleiman J, Baraldi E, Krantz EF, Della Negra M, Diekmann-Berndt H (2004) A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, doseresponse study of micafungin compared with fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. Clin Infect Dis 39: 842–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    de Wet NT, Bester AJ, Viljoen JJ, Filho F, Suleiman JM, Ticona E, Llanos EA, Fisco C, Lau W, Buell D (2005) A randomized, double blind, comparative trial of micafungin (FK463) vs. fluconazole for the treatment of oesophageal candidiasis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21: 899–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Ruhnke M, Kuse E, Chetchotisad H, Arns da Cunha C, Diekmann-Berndt H (2005) Comparison of micafungin and liposomal amphotericin β for invasive candidiasis. In: Abstracts of the 45th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, M892Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Ratanatharathorn V, Flynn P, van Burik J (2002) Micafungin in combination with systemic antifungal agents in the treatment of refractory aspergillosis in bone marrow transplant patients. In: Abstracts of the 44th Annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology. Amercian Society of Hematology, Washington, DC, abstr 2472Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    van Burik JA, Ratanatharathorn V, Stepan DE, Miller CB, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, Bunin N, Wall DA, Hiemenz JW, Satoi Y et al (2004) Micafungin versus fluconazole for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections during neutropenia in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 39: 1407–1416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Hebert MF, Smith HE, Marbury TC, Swan SK, Smith WB, Townsend RW, Buell D, Keirns J, Bekersky I (2005) Pharmacokinetics of micafungin in healthy volunteers, volunteers with moderate liver disease, and volunteers with renal dysfunction. J Clin Pharmacol 45: 1145–1152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Seibel NL, Schwartz C, Arrieta A, Flynn P, Shad A, Albano E, Keirns J, Lau WM, Facklam DP, Buell DN, Walsh TJ (2005) Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of Micafungin (FK463) in febrile neutropenic pediatric patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 3317–3324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Wong K, Waters CM, Walesby RK (1992) Surgical management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 6: 138–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Caillot D, Casasnovas O, Bernard A, Couaillier JF, Durand C, Cuisenier B, Solary E, Piard F, Petrella T, Bonnin A et al (1997) Improved management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in neutropenic patients using early thoracic computed tomographic scan and surgery. J Clin Oncol 15: 139–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Offner F, Cordonnier C, Ljungman P, Prentice HG, Engelhard D, De Bacquer D, Meunier F, De Pauw B (1998) Impact of previous aspergillosis on the outcome of bone marrow transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 6: 1098–1032Google Scholar
  384. 384.
    Reichenberger F, Habicht J, Kaim A, Dalquen P, Bernet F, Schlapfer R, Stulz P, Perruchoud AP, Tichelli A, Gratwohl A, Tamm M (1998) Lung resection for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in neutropenic patients with hematologic diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 885–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Roilides E, Dignani MC, Anaissie EJ, Rex JH (1998) The role of immunoreconstitution in the management of refractory opportunistic fungal infections. Med Mycol 36(Suppl 1): 12–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Bodey GP, Anaissie E, Gutterman J, Vadhan-Raj S (1993) Role of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as adjuvant therapy for fungal infection in patients with cancer. Clin Infect Dis 17: 705–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Nemunaitis J, Shannon-Dorcy K, Appelbaum FR, Meyers J, Owens A, Day R, Ando D, O’Neill C, Buckner D, Singer J (1993) Long-term follow-up of patients with invasive fungal disease who received adjunctive therapy with recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood 82: 1422–1427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Romani L, Mencacci A, Grohmann U, Mocci S, Mosci P, Puccetti P, Bistoni F (1992) Neutralizing antibody to interleukin 4 induces systemic protection and T helper type 1-associated immunity in murine candidiasis. J Exp Med 176: 19–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Kawakami K, Tohyama M, Xie Q, Saito A (1996) IL-12 protects mice against pulmonary and disseminated infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin Exp Immunol 104: 208–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Magee DM, Cox RA (1996) Interleukin-12 regulation of host defenses against Coccidioides immitis. Infect Immun 64: 3609–3613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Rodriguez-Adrian LJ, Grazziutti ML, Rex JH, Anaissie EJ (1998) The potential role of cytokine therapy for fungal infections in patients with cancer: is recovery from neutropenia all that is needed? Clin Infect Dis 26: 1270–1278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Hester JP, Dignani MC, Anaissie EJ, Kantarjian HM, O’Brien S, Freireich EJ (1995) Collection and transfusion of granulocyte concentrates from donors primed with granulocyte stimulating factor and response of myelosuppressed patients with established infection. J Clin Apheresis 10: 188–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Grigg A, Vecchi L, Bardy P, Szer J (1996) G-CSF stimulated donor granulocyte collections for prophylaxis and therapy of neutropenic sepis. Aust NZ J Med 26: 813–818Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas H. Groll
    • 1
  • Julia Koehler
    • 2
  • Thomas J. Walsh
    • 3
  1. 1.Infectious Disease Research Program, Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation and Department of Pediatric Hematology/OncologyUniversity Children’s HospitalMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Division of Infectious DiseasesChildren’s Hospital BostonBostonUSA
  3. 3.Immunocompromised Host Section, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations