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Coastal pollution in Bahrain and its management

  • Khadija Zainal
  • Hashim Al-Sayed
  • Ismail Al-Madany

Abstract

The coastline and the marine environment of Bahrain are important and unexpendable to the Bahraini people. In addition to supporting the country’s economy as most developments lie along the coastal areas, it supports a range of marine organisms that are important components of a wider ecosystem. This contribution highlights the major sources of marine pollution along the coast of Bahrain as well as the current pollution control measures. Oil pollution, apart from industrial activities, has also been related to transportation and military action in the Gulf during the hostilities of 1983, 1991 and 2003. Laws and regulations do exist in order to protect the environment but they need to be further developed and strengthened. Pollution monitoring and control are currently inadequate in the rapidly developing Kingdom. Contingency plans to prevent, remedy and ameliorate negative impact from oil spills are available but they need to be improved. Generally future activities in the Kingdom of Bahrain have to focus on the establishment of an integrated coastal zone management plan.

Keywords

Land Reclamation Marine Pollution Bulletin Pearl Oyster Coastal Zone Management Desalination Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag/Switzerland 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khadija Zainal
    • 1
  • Hashim Al-Sayed
    • 1
  • Ismail Al-Madany
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentUniversity of BahrainManamaBahrain

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