Skin inflammatory disorders

  • Lawrence S. Chan
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)


Atopic Dermatitis Allergy Clin Immunol Inflammatory Skin Disease Rete Ridge Epidermal Hyperproliferation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Freedberg IM, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Austen KF, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI (eds) (2003) Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    The Lewin Group (2005) The burden of skin diseases. Society for Investigative Dermatology & American Academy of Dermatology Association, ClevelandGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chan LS (2004) Comparative structure and function of the skin: overview of structures and components. In: LS Chan (ed): Animal Models of Human Inflammatory Skin Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 3–17Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chan LS, Gordon KB (2004) Mouse immune system. In: LS Chan (ed): Animal Models of Human Inflammatory Skin Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 119–140Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hultsch T, Kapp A, Spergel J (2005) Immunomodulation and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Dermatology 211:174–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peterson J, Chan LS (2006) Comprehensive management guidelines for atopic dermatitis. Dermatol Nursing, in press Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lebwohl M (2005) A clinician’s paradigm in the treatment of psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 53: S59–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van de Kerkhof PC, Kragballe K (2005) Recommendations for the topical treatment of psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol 19: 495–499Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dando TM, Wellington K (2005) Topical tazarotene: a review of its use in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Am J Clin Dermatol 6: 255–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee E, Koo J, Berger T (2005) UVB phototherapy and skin cancer risk: a review of the literature. Int J Dermatol 44: 355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bandow GD, Koo JY (2004) Narrow-band ultraviolet B radiation: a review of the current literature. Int J Dermatol 43: 555–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Zander J, Orlow SJ (2005) Efficacy and safety of oral retinoids in psoriasis. Expert Opin Drug Saf 4: 129–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Warren RB, Griffiths CE (2005) The potential of pharmacogenetics in optimizing the use of methotrexate for psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 153: 869–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Behnam SM, Behnam SE, Koo JY (2005) Review of cyclosporine immunosuppressive safety data in dermatology patients after two decades of use. J Drugs Dermatol 4:189–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sterry W, Barker J, Boehncke WH, Bos JD, Chimenti S, Christophers E, De La Brassinne M, Ferrandiz C, Griffiths C, Katsambas A et al (2004) Biological therapies in the systemic management of psoriasis: International Consensus Conference. Br J Dermatol 151Suppl 69: 3–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weinberg JM, Bottino CJ, Lindholm J, Buchholz R (2005) Biologic therapy for psoriasis: an update on the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab, and the T-cell-targeted therapies efalizumab and alefacept. J Drugs Dermatol 4: 544–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thielen AM, Kuenzli S, Saurat JH (2005) Cutaneous adverse events of biological therapy for psoriasis: review of the literature. Dermatology 211: 209–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leung DYM, Bieber T (2003) Atopic dermatitis. Lancet 361: 151–1160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leung DYM, Boguniewicz M, Howell MD, Nomura I, Hamid QA (2004) New insights into atopic dermatitis. J Clin Invest 113: 651–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hanifin JM, Rajka G (1980) Diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis. Acta Dermatolvener (Stockholm) (Suppl) 92: 44–47Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wuthrich B, Schmid-Grendelmeier P (2003) The atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Epidemiology, natural course, and immunology of the IgE-associated (“extrinsic”) and the nonallergic (“intrinsic”) AEDS. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 13: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Flohr C, Jonansson SG, Wahlgren CF, Willimans H (2004) How atopic is atopic dermatitis? J Allergy Clin Immunol 114: 150–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Novak N, Bieber T, Leung DYM (2003) Immune mechanisms leading to atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112: S128–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gutermuth J, Ollert M, Ring J, Behrendt H, Jakob T (2004) Mouse models of atopic eczema critically evaluated. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 135: 262–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matsuda H, Watanabe N, Geba GP, Sperl J, Tsudzuki M, Hiroi J, Matsumoto M, Ushio H, Saito S, Askenase PW, Ra C (1997) Development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion with IgE hyperproduction in NC/Nga mice. Int Immunol 9: 461–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jones HE, Inoue JC, McGertly JL, Lewis CW (1975) Atopic dermatitis and serum immunoglobulin-E. Br J Dermatol 92: 17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mihm MC, Jr, Soter NA, Dvorak HF, Austen KF (1976) The structure of normal skin and the morphology of atopic eczema. J Invest Dermatol 67: 305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hamid Q, Boguniewicz M, Leung DY (1994) Differential in situ cytokine gene expression in acute versus chronic atopic dermatitis. J Clin Invest 94: 870–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hamid Q, Naseer T, Minshall EM, Song YL, Boguniewicz M, Leung DY (1996) In vivo expression of IL-12 and IL-13 in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98: 225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grewe M, Gyufko K, Schopf E, Krutmann J (1994) Lesional expression of interferongamma in atopic dermatitis. Lancet 343: 25–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vestergaard C, Yoneyama H, Murai M, Nakamura K, Tamaki K, Terashima Y, Imai T, Yoshie O, Irimura T, Mizutani H, Matsushima K (1999) Overproduction of Th2-specific chemokines in NC/Nga mice exhibiting atopic dermatitis-like lesions. J Clin Invest 104: 1097–1105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Matsumoto M, Ra C, Kawamoto K, Sato H, Itakura A, Sawada J, Ushio H, Suto H, Mitsuishi K, Hikasa Y, Matsuda H (1999) IgE hyperproduction through enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus Kinase 3 in NC/Nga mice, a model for human atopic dermatitis. J Immunol 162: 1056–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aioi A, Tonogalto H, Suto H, Hamada K, Ra CR, Ogawa H, Maibach H, Matsuda H (2001) Impairment of skin barrier function in NC/Nga Tnd mice as possible model for atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 144: 12–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Iwasaki T, Tanaka A, Itakura A, Yamashita N, Ohta K, Matsuda H, Onuma M (2001) Atopic NC/Nga mice as a model for allergic asthma: severe allergic responses by single intranasal challenge with protein antigen. J Vet Med Sci 63: 413–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sasakawa T, Higashi Y, Sakuma S, Hirayama Y, Sasakawa Y, Ohkubo Y, Goto T, Matsumoto M, Matsuda H (2001) Atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by topical application of mite antigens in NC/Nga mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 126: 239–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kawamoto K, Matsuda H (2004) Spontaneous mouse model of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. In: LS Chan (ed.): Animal Models of Human Inflammatory Skin Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 371–386Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang LF, Lin JY, Hsich KH, Lin RH (1996) Epicutaneous exposure of protein antigen induces a predominant Th2-like response with high IgE production in mice. J Immunol 156: 4077–4082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Spergel JM, Mizoguchi E, Brewer JP, Martin TR, Bhan AK, Geha RS (1998) Epicutaneous sensitization with protein antigen induces localized allergic dermatitis and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine after single exposure to aerosolized antigen in mice. J Clin Invest 101: 1614–1622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Spergel JM, Mizoguchi E, Oettgen H, Bhan AK, Geha RS (1999) Roles of TH1 and TH2 cytokines in a murine model of allergic dermatitis. J Clin Invest 103: 1103–1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spergel JM (2004) Experimental mouse model of atopic dermatitis: induction by epicutaneous application of allergen. In: LS Chan (ed): Animal Models of Human Inflammatory Skin Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 417–426Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Woodward AL, Spergel JM, Alenius H, Mizoguchi E, Bhan AK, Castigli E, Brodeur SR, Oettgen HC, Geha RS (2001) An obligate role for T-cell receptor alphabeta+ T cells but not T-cell receptor gammadelta+ T cells, B cells, or CD40/CD40L interactions in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107: 359–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Li XM, Kleiner G, Huang CK, Lee SY, Schofield B, Soter NA, Sampson HA (2001) Murine model of atopic dermatitis associated with food hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107: 693–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li XM, Sampson HA (2004) Experimental mouse model of atopic dermatitis: induction by oral allergen. In: LS Chan (ed): Animal Models of Human Inflammatory Skin Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 389–415Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chan LS, Robinson N, Xu L (2001) Expression of interleukin-4 in the epidermis of transgenic mice results in a pruritic inflammatory skin disease: An experimental animal model to study atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 117: 977–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen L, Martinez O, Overbergh L, Mathieu C, Prabhakar BS, Chan LS (2004) Early upregulation of Th2 cytokines and late surge of Th1 cytokines in an atopic dermatitis model. Clin Exp Immunol 138: 375–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chen L, Martinez O, Venkataramani P, Lin SX, Prabhakar BS, Chan LS (2005) Correlation of disease evolution with progressive inflammatory cell activation and migration in the IL-4 transgenic mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Immunol 139:189–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chen L, Lin SX, Overbergh L, Mathieu C, Chan LS (2005) The disease progression in the keratin 14 IL-4-transgenic mouse model of atopic dermatitis parallels the upregulations of B cell activation molecules, proliferation, and surface and serum IgE. Clin Exp Immunol 142: 21–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chan LS (2004) Experimental mouse model of atopic dermatitis by transgenic induction. In: LS Chan (ed): Animal Models of Human Inflammatory Skin Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 387–398Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Agha-Majzoub R, Becker RP, Schraufnagel DE, Chan LS (2005) Angiogenesis, the major abnormality of the Keratin 14 IL-4-transgenic mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Microcirculation 12: 455–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lee SY, Paik SY, Chung SM (2005) Neovastat (AE-941) inhibits the airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma. J Microbiol 43: 11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Watanabe H, Mamelak AJ, Wang B, Howell BG, Freed I, Esche C, Nakayama M, Nagasaki G, Hicklin DJ, Kerbel RS, Sauder DN (2004) Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (Flk-1/KDR) antibody suppresses contact hypersensitivity. Exp Dermatol 13: 671–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chan LS (2004) Molecular biological manipulation of the immune system by transgenic techniques. In: LS Chan (ed): Animal Models of Human Inflammatory Skin Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 187–195Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rzany B, Naldi L, Schafer T, Stern R, Williams H (1998) The diagnosis of psoriasis: diagnostic criteria. Br J Dermatol 138: 917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Christophers E, Mrowietz U (2003) Psoriasis. In: Freedberg IM, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Austen KF, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI (eds): Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, 407–427Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stern RS, Wu J (1996) Psoriasis. In: KA Arndt, PE LeBoit, JK Robinson, BU Wintroub (eds): Cutaeneous medicine and surgery: An integrated program in dermatology. Saunders, Philadelphia, 295–321Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leigh IM, Navsaria H, Purkis PE, McKay IA, Bowden PE, Riddle PN (1995) Keratins (K16 and K17) as markers of keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriasis in vivo and in vitro. Br J Dermatol 133: 501–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hertle MD, Kubler MD, Leigh IM, Watt FM (1992) Aberrant integrin expression during epidermal wound healing and in psoriastic epidermis. J Clin Invest 89: 1892–1901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Caroll JM, Romero MR, Watt FM (1995) Suprabasal integrin expression in the epidemis of transgenic mice results in development defects and a phenotype resembling psoriasis. Cell 83: 957–968Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wrone-Smith T, Nickoloff BJ (1996) Dermal injection of immunocytes induces psoriasis. J Clin Invest 98: 1878–1887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Watt FM, Hertle MD (1994) Keratinocyte integrins. In: IM Leigh, EB Lane, FM Watt (eds): The keratinocyte handbook. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 153–164Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hotchin NA, Kovach NL, Watt FM (1993) Functional downregulation of α5β1 integrin in keratinocytes is reversible but commitment to terminal differentiation is not. J Cell Sci 106: 1131–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hotchin NA, Gandarilias A, Watt FM (1995) Regulation of cell surface β1 integrin levels during keratincocyte terminal differentiation. J Cell Biol 128: 1209–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rikimaru K, Moles JP, Watt FM (1997) Correlation between hyperproliferation and suprabasal integrin expression in human epidermis reconstituted in culture. Exp Dermatol 6: 214–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Haase I, Hobbs RM, Romero MR, Broad S, Watt FM (2001) A role for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by integrins in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. J Clin Invest 108(4): 527–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nickoloff BJ, Wrone-Smith T (1999) Injection of pre-psoriatic skin with CD4+ T cells induces psoriasis. Am J Pathol 155: 145–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nickoloff BJ, Bonish B, Huang BB, Porcelli SA (2000) Characterization of a T cell line bearing natural killer receptors and capable of creating psoriasis in a SCID mouse model system. J Dermatol Sci 24(3): 212–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Boyman O, Hefti HP, Conrad C, Nickoloff BJ, Suter M, Nestle FO (2004) Spontaneous development of psoriasis in a new animal model shows an essential role for resident T cells and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Exp Med 199(5): 731–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gilhar A, David M, Ullmann Y, Berkutski T, Kalish RS (1997) T-lymphocyte dependence of psoriatic pathology in human psoriatic skin grafted to SCID mice. J Invest Dermatol 109(3): 283–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Snowden JA, Heaton DC (1997) Development of psoriasis after syngeneic bone marrow transplant from psoriatic donor: further evidence for adoptive autoimmunity. Br J Dermatol 137(1): 130–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Xia YP, Li B, Hylton D, Detmar M, Yancopoulos GD, Rudge JS (2003) Transgenic delivery of VEGF to mouse skin leads to an inflammatory condition resembling human psoriasis. Blood 102: 161–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jackson JR, Seed MP, Kircher CH, Willoughby DA, Winkler JD (1997) The codependence of angiogenesis and chronic inflammation. FASEB J 11: 457–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Li AG, Wang D, Feng XH, Wang XJ (2004) Latent TGFβ1 overexpression in keratinocytes results in a severe psoriasis-like skin disorder. EMBO J 23: 1770–1781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sellheyer K, Bickenbach JR, Rothnagel JA, Bundman D, Longley MA, Krieg T, Roche NS, Roberts AB, Roop DR (1993) Inhibition of skin development by overexpression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in the epidermis of transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 5237–5241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cui W, Fowlis DJ, Cousins FM, Duffie E, Bryson S, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ (1995) Concerted action of TGF-beta 1 and its type II receptor in control of epidermal homeostasis in transgenic mice. Genes Dev 9: 945–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fowlis DJ, Cui W, Johnson SA, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ (1996) Altered epidermal cell growth control in vivo by inducible expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in the skin of transgenic mice. Cell Growth Differ 7: 679–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Miyazono K, Kusanagi K, Inoue H (2001) Divergence convergence of TGF-beta/BMP signaling. J Cell Physiol 187: 265–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Goumans MJ, Valdmarsdottir G, Itoch S, Rosendahl A, Sideras P, Ten Dijke P (2002) Balancing the activation state of the endothelium via two distinct TGF-beta type I receptors. EMBO J 21: 1743–1753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rulo HF, Westphal JR, van de Kerkhof PC, de Waal RM, van Vlijmen IM, Ruiter DJ (1995) Expression of endoglin in psoriatic involved and uninvolved skin. J Dermatol Sci 10: 103–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shibuya M (2003) Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: Its unique signaling and specific ligand, VEGF-E. Cancer Sci 94: 751–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sano S, Chan KS, Carbajal S, Clifford J, Peavey M, Kiguchi K Itami S, Nickoloff BJ, DiGiovanni J (2005) Stat3 links activated keratinocytes and immunocytes required for development of psoriasis in a novel transgenic mouse model. Nat Med 11: 43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Leonard WJ, O’Shea JJ (1998) Jaks and STATs: biological implications. Annu Rev Immunol 16: 293–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Levy ED, Darnell JE, Jr (2002) Stats: transcriptional control and biological impact. Nat Rev Cell Biol 3: 651–662Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hirano T, Ishihara K, Hibi M (2000) Roles of STAT3 in mediating the cell growth, differentiation and survival signals relayed through the IL-6 family of cytokine receptors. Oncogene 19: 2548–2556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Turkson J, Jove R (2000) STAT proteins: novel molecule targets for cancer drug discovery. Oncogene 19: 6613–6626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sano S, Itami S, Takeda K, Tarutani M, Yamaguchi Y, Miura H, Yoshikawa K, Akira S, Takeda J (1999) Keratinocyte-specific ablation of Stat3 exhibits impaired skin remodeling, but does not affect skin morphogenesis. EMBO J 18: 4657–4668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reed MJ, Ferara NS, Vernon RB (2001) Impaired migration, integrin function, and actin cytoskeletal organization in dermal fibroblasts from a subset of aged human donors. Mech Ageing Dev 122: 1203–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gosain A, DiPietro LA (2004) Aging and wound healing. World J Surg 28: 321–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Voskas D, Jones N, Van Slyke P, Struk C, Chang W, Haninec A, Babichev YO, Tran J, Master Z et al (2005) A cyclosporine-sensitive psoriasis-like disease produced in Tie2 transgenic mice. Am J Pathol 166: 843–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sato TN, Tozawa Y, Deutsch U, Wolburg-Buchholz K, Fujiwara Y, Gendron-Maguire M, Gridley T, Wolburg H, Risau W, Qin Y (1995) Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2 in blood vessel formation. Nature 376: 70–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maisonpierre PC, Suri C, Jones PF, Bartunkova S, Wiegand SJ, Radziejewski C, Compton D, McClain J, Aldrich TH, Papadopoulos N et al (1997) Angiopoietin-2, a natural antagonist for Tie2 that disrupts in vivo angiogenesis. Science 277: 55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ward N, Dumont DJ (2002) The angiopoietins and Tie2/Tek: adding to the complexity of cardiovascular development. Semin Cell Dev Biol 1: 19–27Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Puri MC, Partanen J, Rossant J, Bernstein A (1999) Interaction of the TEK and TIE receptor tyrosine kinases during cardiovascular development. Development 126: 4569–4580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jones N, Voskas D, Master Z, Sarao R, Jones J, Dumont DJ (2001) Rescue of the early vascular defects in Tek/Tie2 null mice reveals an essential survival function. EMBO Rep 2: 438–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kuroda K, Sapadin A, Shoji T, Fleischmajer R, Lebwohl M (2001) Altered expression of angiopoietins and Tie2 endothelium receptor in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 116: 713–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hernandez GL, Volpert OV, Inguez MA, Lorenzo E, Martinez-Martinez S, Grau R, Fresno M, Redondo JM (2001) Selective inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis by cyclosporin A: roles of nuclear factor of activated T cells and cycloxygenase 2. J Exp Med 193: 607–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nickoloff BJ, Fisher GJ, Mitra RS, Voorhees JJ (1988) Additive and synergistic antiproliferative effects of cyclosporine A and gamma interferon on cultured human keratinocytes. Am J Pathol 131: 12–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Miyauchi-Hashimoto H, Okamoto H, Sugihara A, Horio T (2005) Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of PUVA photochemotherapy on atopic dermatitis-like lesions in NC/Nga mice. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 21: 125–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Onishi N, Kawamoto S, Nishimura M, Nakano T, Aki T, Shigeta S, Shimizu H, Hashimoto K, Ono K (2004) The ability of konjac-glucomannan to suppress spontaneously occurring dermatitis in NC/Nga mice depends upon the particle size. Biofactors 21: 163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kohno T, Tsuji T, Hirayama K, Watabe K, Matsumoto A, Kohno T, Fujita T (2004) A novel immunomodulator, FTY720, prevents spontaneous dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Biol Pharm Bull 27: 1392–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sakamoto T, Miyazaki E, Aramaki Y, Arima H, Takahashi M, Kato Y, Koga M, Tsuchiya S (2004) Improvement of dermatitis by iontophoretically delivered antisense oligonucleotides for interleukin-10 in NC/Nga mice. Gene Ther 11: 317–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sasakawa T, Higashi Y, Sakuma S, Hirayama Y, Sasakawa Y, Ohkubo Y, Mutoh S (2004) Topical application of FK506 (tacrolimus) ointment inhibits mite antigeninduced dermatitis by local action in NC/Nga mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 133: 55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kobayashi H, Mizuno N, Kutsuna H, Teramae H, Ueoku S, Onoyama J, Yamanaka K, Fujita N, Ishii M (2003) Hochu-ekki-to suppresses development of dermatitis and elevation of serum IgE level in NC/Nga mice. Drugs Exp Clin Res 29: 81–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Higa S, Kotani M, Matsumoto M, Fujita A, Hirano T, Suemura M, Kawase I, Tanaka T (2003) Administration of anti-interleukin 18 antibody fails to inhibit development of dermatitis in atopic dermatitis-model mice NC/Nga. Br J Dermatol 149: 39–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nakamura H, Aoki M, Tamai K, Oishi M, Ogihara T, Kaneda Y, Morishita R (2002) Prevention and regression of atopic dermatitis by ointment containing NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides in NC/Nga atopic mouse model. Gene Ther 9: 1221–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Watanabe N, Tomimori Y, Saito K, Miura K, Wada A, Tsudzuki M, Fukuda Y (2002) Chymase inhibitor improves dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 128: 229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sumiyoshi K, Nakao A, Ushio H, Mitsuishi K, Okumura K, Tsuboi R, Ra C, Ogawa H (2002) Transforming growth factor-beta1 suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Clin Exp Allergy 32: 309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Matsumoto M, Kotani M, Fujita A, Higa S, Kishimoto T, Suemura M, Tanaka T (2002) Oral administration of persimmon leaf extract ameliorates skin symptoms and transepidermal water loss in atopic dermatitis model mice, NC/Nga. Br J Dermatol 146: 221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zeigler M, Chi Y, Tumas DB, Bodary B, Tang H, Varani J (2001) Anti-CD11a ameliorates disease in the human psoriatic skin-SCID mouse transplant model: Comparison of antibody to CD11a with Cyclosporin A and clobetasol propionate. Lab Invest 81: 1253–1261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Villadsen LS, Schuarman J, Beurskens F, Dan TN, Dagnaes-Hansen F, Skov L, Rygaard J, Voorhorst-Ogink MM, Gerristen AF, van Dijk MA et al (2003) Resolution of psoriasis upon blockade of IL-15 biological activity in a xenograft mouse model. J Clin Invest 112: 1571–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sano S, Chan KS, Carbajal S, Clfford J, Peavey M, Kiguchi K, Itami S, Nickoloff BJ, DiGiovanni J (2005) Stat3 links activated keratinocytes and immunocytes required for development of psoriasis in a novel transgenic mouse model. Nat Med 11: 43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence S. Chan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of Illinois at Chicago, College of MedicineChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations