• Arno W. R. van Kuijk
  • Ben A. C. Dijkmans
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)


Cyclosporin A (CsA) was discovered and isolated in 1971 as a fungal metabolite produced by Tylopocladium inflatum with only weak antimicrobial properties. After the initial deception the immunosuppressive effect of CsA was discovered and explored in the Sandoz laboratories in the years thereafter [1, 2]. Since its first use in humans in 1978 CsA has led to a dramatic improvement in the field of organ transplantation [3]. Based on its mode of action it has also been used as an immunosuppressive agent in many other diseases, mainly autoimmune or rheumatologic conditions. The success of CsA in the clinical treatment of organ transplant patients was never equalled in rheumatology, but CsA certainly has a place as immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).


Rheumatoid Arthritis Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Microemulsion Formulation Parenteral Gold Refractory Rheumatoid Arthritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arno W. R. van Kuijk
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ben A. C. Dijkmans
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Immunology and RheumatologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Jan van Breemen InstituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of RheumatologyVrije Universiteit Medical CentreAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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