New developments in printing technologies have made it possible to create intaglio structures of enormous richness in fine spatial details. Nowadays relief height of printed intaglio structures can reach up to 50–100 microns thereby creating not only visual, but also strong and significant tactile and haptic sensations (Fig. 1).


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Form Element Blind Subject Haptic Sensation Pleasantness Rating 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Suggested readings

  1. Dinse HR, Kalisch T, Ragert P, Pleger B, Schwenkreis P, Tegenthoff M (2005) Improving human haptic performance in normal and impaired human populations through unattended activation-based learning. Transaction Appl Perc 2: 71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kops CE, Gardner EP (1996) Discrimination of simulated texture patterns on the human hand. J Neurophysiol 76: 1145–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lederman SJ, Hamilton C (2002) Using tactile features to help functionally blind individuals denominate banknotes. Hum Factors 44: 413–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Important websites

  1. Banknote 2006. The definite forum on emerging trends and leading technologies in the banknote in dustry. Scholar
  2. Deutsche Bundesbank — Eurosystem: Scholar
  3. Haptics-L: The electronic mailing list for the international haptics community; Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hubert R. Dinse
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Neuroinformatik, Dept. Theoretical Biology, Neural Plasticity LabRuhr UniversityBochumGermany
  2. 2.Haptec-Haptic Research & Technology GmbHFröndenbergGermany

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