It is well known that sense of touch is inevitable for understanding the real world. The use of force feedback to enhance computer-human interaction has often been discussed. A haptic interface is a feedback device that generates sensation to the skin and muscles, including a sense of touch, weight and rigidity. Compared to ordinary visual and auditory sensations, haptics is difficult to synthesise. Visual and auditory sensations are gathered by specialised organs, the eyes and ears. On the other hand, a sensation of force can occur at any part of the human body, and is therefore inseparable from actual physical contact. These characteristics lead to many difficulties when developing a haptic interface. Visual and auditory media are widely used in everyday life, although little application of haptic interface is used for information media.


Virtual Environment Virtual Object Micro Electrode Array Linear Actuator Master Manipulator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Selected readings

  1. Burdea G (1996) Force and touch feedback for virtual reality. John Wiley & Sons, INCGoogle Scholar
  2. Sears A, Jacko J (2008) The human-computer interaction handbook. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 229–245Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirro Iwata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Intelligent Interaction TechnologiesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

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