Implicit and explicit memory effects in haptic perception

  • Soledad Ballesteros


There is considerable evidence in the literature showing that memory is not a unitary entity. Old neuropsychological findings from different groups of patients and more recent laboratory studies are in agreement about the major memory systems in the human brain. A distinction is made between declarative or explicit memory and nondeclarative or implicit memory. Of special interest is the distinction in declarative memory between episodic and semantic memory [1]. Episodic memory includes personal experiences and conscious recollection of events in our past. This type of memory is defined by the capacity to retrieve voluntarily facts and events in the spatial-temporal context. On the other hand, semantic memory refers to our general knowledge, including the meaning of words and concepts.


Implicit Memory Repetition Priming Familiar Object Explicit Memory Haptic Perception 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further readings

  1. Ballesteros S, Reales JM (2004) Intact haptic priming in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease: Evidence for dissociable memory systems. Neuropsychologia 44: 1063–1070 This article showed intact implicit memory for objects explored haptically without vision in normal older adults and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. In contrast, the explicit recognition of AD patients was highly impaired compared to healthy older adults.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Millar S (1999) Memory in touch. Psicothema 11: 747–767. In this article, Millar reviewed a series of studies dealing with short-term memory for stimuli presented to touch. She noticed that haptic spans are shorter than visual spans and explained this result in terms of the paucity of reference information to organise inputs spatially. Movements are also important as they can be used in haptic rehearsal.Google Scholar
  3. Three chapters of the book edited by Morton Heller and Soledad Ballesteros (2006) Touch and blindness: psychology and neuroscience published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates provide complementary information from three different laboratories on the neural substrate that supports visual and haptic object representations (Chapters 7, 8, and 9):-James, James, Humphrey, Goodale: Do visual and tactile object representations share the same neural substrate? 139–155-Sathian, Prather: Cerebral cortical processing of tactile form: Evidence from functional neuroimaging. 157–170-Pascual-leone, Theoret, Merabet, Kauffmann, Schlaug: The role of visual cortex in tactile processing: A metamodal brain. 171–195Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soledad Ballesteros
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Basic Psychology IIUniversidad Nacional de Educación a DistanciaMadridSpain

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