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Pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections:adaptive immunity, innate immunity, cell biology, virulence factors

  • Sven Hammerschmidt
  • Simone Bergmann
  • Gavin K. Paterson
  • Timothy J. Mitchell
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)

Abstract

During the past two decades the intense study of the infection process of Streptococcus pneumoniae has elucidated multifaceted interactions of the human pathogenic bacterium with the host. A broad spectrum of pneumococcal virulence factors, which are adapted successfully to different host niches, is involved either predominantly in nasopharyngeal colonization or subsequently in dissemination and transmigration of host tissue barriers. The severe course of infections becomes manifest in invasive diseases like pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia.

To escape the risk of increasing antibiotic resistance and to combat the threat of pneumococcal infections pneumococcal vaccines have been developed. The carrier protein of the current available heptavalent vaccine is not derived from pneumococci therefore it is thought to substitute this carrier by a highly conserved and immunogenic pneumococcal- specific protein. S. pneumoniae is a versatile microorganism and has evolved numerous successful strategies to colonize its host and to evade host defence mechanisms. In this report we discuss the bacterial repertoire of virulence factors and provide insights into the surface protein variability. In addition, we show the impact of these virulence factors on interactions with host components, including cellular receptors and how the function of these proteins contributes to colonization and virulence of S. pneumoniae. The non-invasive and invasive infections are accompanied by immune responses of both the innate and adaptive immune system. These two systems operate in concert to combat infections, but pneumococci have developed highly sophisticated mechanisms to subvert the host immune system. We introduce pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific structures of pneumococci and stimulate thereby host defence mechanisms.

Keywords

Streptococcus Pneumoniae Pneumococcal Disease Capsular Polysaccharide Pneumococcal Meningitis Pneumococcal Pneumonia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven Hammerschmidt
    • 1
  • Simone Bergmann
    • 1
  • Gavin K. Paterson
    • 2
  • Timothy J. Mitchell
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Center for Infectious DiseasesUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany
  2. 2.Division of Infection and Immunity Institute of Biomedical and Life ScienceJoseph Black Building, University of GlasgowUK

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