Advertisement

Poxviruses pp 329-353 | Cite as

Orthopoxvirus vaccines and vaccination

  • Lauren M. Handley
  • J. Paige Mackey
  • R. Mark Buller
  • Clifford J. Bellone
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)

Abstract

Immunization procedures against Variola virus, from the historical perspective most often first credited to Edward Jenner in the late 18th century, helped finally to eradicate smallpox from the world. Since its eradication, the study of this disease and its pathology has been given little attention; however, with the emergence of Monkeypox virus into the human population and the potential use of smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon, the need for an option to vaccinate the world’s population is once again a reality. The vaccines used during the eradication program were live, attenuated Vaccinia virus preparations of varying virulence that caused a significant number of adverse reactions in naïve subjects. Currently, immunosuppressed individuals, persons with certain skin diseases, and people with cardiovascular complications are contraindicated against receiving this type of vaccine. A new vaccine is needed. Until now, the only known correlate of immunity to the smallpox vaccine conveying protection has been the development of a scar at the site of vaccination. Characterizing the protective immune response established upon vaccination with Dryvax®, at both the innate and adaptive levels, would greatly enhance our understanding of the human immune response to the vaccine, and thus generate information for the production and evaluation of new and safer third- and fourth-generation vaccines.

Keywords

Vaccinia Virus Neutralize Antibody Titer Smallpox Vaccination Smallpox Vaccine Modify Vaccinia Virus Ankara 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I, Jezek Z, Ladnyj ID (1988) Smallpox and its eradication. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coult R (1731) Operation of inoculation of the smallpox as performed in Bengal [from R. Coult to Dr Oliver Coult in An account of the diseases of Bengall (dated Calcutta, Feb 10. 1731]. Reprinted in: Dharampal (1971) Indian science and technology in the eighteenth century. Impex, Delhi, 141–143Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jenner E (1801) The origin of the vaccine inoculation. Shury, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crookshank EM (1889) History and pathology of vaccination, vols. 1 and 2. Lewis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Downie AW (1939) The immunological relationship of the virus of spontaneous cowpox to vaccinia virus. Br J Exp Pathol 20: 158–176Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ministry of Health for England and Wales (1924) Smallpox and vaccination. Reports on public health and medical subjects, No. 8. H.M. Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger KAHW (1973) Decrease in postvaccinial deaths in Austria after introducing a less pathogenic virus strain. In: International Symposium on Smallpox Vaccine, Bilthoven, the Netherlands, 11–13 October 1972: Symposia Series in Immunobiological Standardization, vol. 19. Karger, Basel, 199–203Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Polak MF (1973) Complications of smallpox vaccination in the Netherlands, 1959-1970. In: International Symposium on Smallpox Vaccine, Bilthoven, the Netherlands, 11–13 October 1972: Symposia Series in Immunobiological Standardization, vol. 19. Karger, Basel, 235–242Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marennikova SS (1973) Evaluation of vaccine strains by their behavior in vaccinated animals and possible implication of the revealed features for smallpox vaccination practice. In: International Symposium on Smallpox Vaccine, Bilthoven, the Netherlands, 11–13 October 1972: Symposia Series in Immunobiological Standardization, vol. 19. Karger, Basel, 253–260Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Galasso GJ, Mattheis MJ, Cherry JD, Connor JD, McIntosh K, Benenson AS, Alling DW (1977) Clinical and serologic study of four smallpox vaccines comparing variations of dose and route of administration. J Infect Dis 135: 183–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Polak MF, Beunders BJ, Van Der Werff AR, Sanders EW, Van Klaveren J, Brans LM (1963) A comparative study of clinical reaction observed after application of several smallpox vaccines in primary vaccination of young adults. Bull World Health Organ 29: 311–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Poxvirus Bioinformatics Resource Center (2004) http://www.biovirus.orgGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lane JM, Ruben FL, Neff JM, Millar JD (1969) Complications of smallpox vaccination, 1968. N Engl J Med 281: 1201–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lane JM, Ruben FL, Neff JM, Millar JD (1970) Complications of smallpox vaccination, 1968: results of ten statewide surveys. J Infect Dis 122: 303–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fulginiti VA, Papier A, Lane JM, Neff JM, Henderson DA (2003) Smallpox vaccination: a review, part II. Adverse events. Clin Infect Dis 37: 251–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    CDC (2006) Frequently asked questions about smallpox vaccine. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/vaccination/faq.aspGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cono J, Casey CG, Bell DM (2003) Smallpox vaccination and adverse reactions. Guidance for clinicians. MMWR Recomm Rep 52: 1–28Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hanna W, Baxby D (2002) Studies in smallpox and vaccination. 1913. Rev Med Virol 12: 201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mack TM (1972) Smallpox in Europe, 1950–1971. J Infect Dis 125: 161–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fearon DT, Locksley RM (1996) The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science 272: 50–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pasare C, Medzhitov R (2004) Toll-like receptors: linking innate and adaptive immunity. Microbes Infect 6: 1382–1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alcami A, Khanna A, Paul NL, Smith GL (1999) Vaccinia virus strains Lister, USSR and Evans express soluble and cell-surface tumour necrosis factor receptors. J Gen Virol 80: 949–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cunnion KM (1999) Tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by poxviruses. Mol Genet Metab 67: 278–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karupiah G, Fredrickson TN, Holmes KL, Khairallah LH, Buller RM (1993) Importance of interferons in recovery from mousepox. J Virol 67: 4214–4226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith GL, Symons JA, Alcami A (1998) Poxviruses: interfering with interferon. Semin Virol 8: 409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith VP, Alcami A (2002) Inhibition of interferons by ectromelia virus. J Virol 76: 1124–1134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Symons JA, Alcami A, Smith GL (1995) Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity. Cell 81: 551–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Colamonici OR, Domanski P, Sweitzer SM, Larner A, Buller RM (1995) Vaccinia virus B18R gene encodes a type I interferon-binding protein that blocks interferon alpha transmembrane signaling. J Biol Chem 270: 15974–15978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alcami A, Smith GL (1992) A soluble receptor for interleukin-1 beta encoded by vaccinia virus: a novel mechanism of virus modulation of the host response to infection. Cell 71: 153–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bowie A, Kiss-Toth E, Symons JA, Smith GL, Dower SK, O’Neill LA (2000) A46R and A52R from vaccinia virus are antagonists of host IL-1 and toll-like receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 10162–10167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Spriggs MK, Hruby DE, Maliszewski CR, Pickup DJ, Sims JE, Buller RM, VanSlyke J (1992) Vaccinia and cowpox viruses encode a novel secreted interleukin-1-binding protein. Cell 71: 145–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reading PC, Smith GL (2003) Vaccinia virus interleukin-18-binding protein promotes virulence by reducing gamma interferon production and natural killer and T-cell activity. J Virol 77: 9960–9968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Born TL, Morrison LA, Esteban DJ, VandenBos T, Thebeau LG, Chen N, Spriggs MK, Sims JE, Buller RM (2000) A poxvirus protein that binds to and inactivates IL-18, and inhibits NK cell response. J Immunol 164: 3246–3254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Graham KA, Lalani AS, Macen JL, Ness TL, Barry M, Liu LY, Lucas A, Clark-Lewis I, Moyer RW, McFadden G (1997) The T1/35kDa family of poxvirussecreted proteins bind chemokines and modulate leukocyte influx into virusinfected tissues. Virology 229: 12–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Smith CA, Smith TD, Smolak PJ, Friend D, Hagen H, Gerhart M, Park L, Pickup DJ, Torrance D, Mohler K, Schooley K, Goodwin RG (1997) Poxvirus genomes encode a secreted, soluble protein that preferentially inhibits beta chemokine activity yet lacks sequence homology to known chemokine receptors. Virology 236: 316–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Howard J, Justus DE, Totmenin AV, Shchelkunov S, Kotwal GJ (1998) Molecular mimicry of the inflammation modulatory proteins (IMPs) of poxviruses: evasion of the inflammatory response to preserve viral habitat. J Leukoc Biol 64: 68–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stack J, Haga IR, Schroder M, Bartlett NW, Maloney G, Reading PC, Fitzgerald KA, Smith GL, Bowie AG (2005) Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like-interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulence. J Exp Med 201: 1007–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Harte MT, Haga IR, Maloney G, Gray P, Reading PC, Bartlett NW, Smith GL, Bowie A, O’Neill LA (2003) The poxvirus protein A52R targets Toll-like receptor signaling complexes to suppress host defense. J Exp Med 197: 343–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Seet BT, Johnston JB, Brunetti CR, Barrett JW, Everett H, Cameron C, Sypula J, Nazarian SH, Lucas A, McFadden G (2003) Poxviruses and immune evasion. Annu Rev Immunol 21: 377–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gherardi MM, Ramirez JC, Esteban M (2003) IL-12 and IL-18 act in synergy to clear vaccinia virus infection: involvement of innate and adaptive components of the immune system. J Gen Virol 84: 1961–1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tanaka-Kataoka M, Kunikata T, Takayama S, Iwaki K, Ohashi K, Ikeda M, Kurimoto M (1999) In vivo antiviral effect of interleukin 18 in a mouse model of vaccinia virus infection. Cytokine 11: 593–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chaudhri G, Panchanathan V, Buller RM, van den Eertwegh AJ, Claassen E, Zhou J, de Chazal R, Laman JD, Karupiah G (2004) Polarized type 1 cytokine response and cell-mediated immunity determine genetic resistance to mousepox. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 9057–9062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ruby J, Bluethmann H, Peschon JJ (1997) Antiviral activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is mediated via p55 and p75 TNF receptors. J Exp Med 186: 1591–1596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jackson RJ, Ramsay AJ, Christensen CD, Beaton S, Hall DF, Ramshaw IA (2001) Expression of mouse interleukin-4_by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox. J Virol 75: 1205–1210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    van Den Broek M, Bachmann MF, Kohler G, Barner M, Escher R, Zinkernagel R, Kopf M (2000) IL-4 and IL-10 antagonize IL-12-mediated protection against acute vaccinia virus infection with a limited role of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide synthetase 2. J Immunol 164: 371–378Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ramshaw IA, Ramsay AJ, Karupiah G, Rolph MS, Mahalingam S, Ruby JC (1997) Cytokines and immunity to viral infections. Immunol Rev 159: 119–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Norbury CC, Basta S, Donohue KB, Tscharke DC, Princiotta MF, Berglund P, Gibbs J, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW (2004) CD8+ T cell cross-priming via transfer of proteasome substrates. Science 304: 1318–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Serna A, Ramirez MC, Soukhanova A, Sigal LJ (2003) Cutting edge: efficient MHC class I cross-presentation during early vaccinia infection requires the transfer of proteasomal intermediates between antigen donor and presenting cells. J Immunol 171: 5668–5672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Karupiah G, Buller RM, Van Rooijen N, Duarte CJ, Chen J (1996) Different roles for CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophage subsets in the control of a generalized virus infection. J Virol 70: 8301–8309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Worku S, Gorse GJ, Belshe RB, Hoft DF (2001) Canarypox vaccines induce antigen-specific human gammadelta T cells capable of interferon-gamma production. J Infect Dis 184: 525–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Selin LK, Santolucito PA, Pinto AK, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E, Welsh RM (2001) Innate immunity to viruses: control of vaccinia virus infection by gamma delta T cells. J Immunol 166: 6784–6794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fulginiti V, Kempe CH, Hathaway WE, Pearlman DS, Sieber OF, Eller JJ, Joyner JJ Sr, Robinson A (1968) Progressive vaccinia in immunologically-deficient individuals. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 4: 129–145Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Good RA, Varco RL (1955) A clinical and experimental study of agammaglobulinemia. J Lancet 75: 245–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    CDC (1982) Vaccinia necrosum after smallpox vaccination-Michigan. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 31: 501–502Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Freed ER, Duma RJ, Escobar MR (1972) Vaccinia necrosum and its relationship to impaired immunologic responsiveness. Am J Med 52: 411–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mihailescu R, Topciu V, Dogaru D, Petrovici A, Plavosin L, Stanciu N, Moldovan E, Roth L (1979) Laboratory diagnosis in a case of fatal progressive vaccinia due to manifest immunologic deficiencies. Zentralbl Bakteriol B 169: 510–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    White CM (1963) Vaccinia gangrenosa due to hypogammaglobulinemia. Lancet 1: 969–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Somers K (1957) Vaccinia gangrenosa and agammaglobulinaemia. Arch Dis Child 32: 220–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kozinn PJ, Sigel MM, Gorrie R (1955) Progressive vaccinia associated with agammaglobulinemia and defects in immune mechanism. Pediatrics 16: 600–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Carson MJ, Donnell GN (1956) Vaccinia gangrenosa; a case in a child with hypogammaglobulinemia. Calif Med 85: 335–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Olding-Stenkvist E, Nordbring F, Larsson E, Lindblom B, Wigzell H (1980) Fatal progressive vaccinia in two immunodeficient infants. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 24: 63–67Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Xu R, Johnson AJ, Liggitt D, Bevan MJ (2004) Cellular and humoral immunity against vaccinia virus infection of mice. J Immunol 172: 6265–6271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fang Mand Sigal LJ (2005) Antibodies and CD8+ T cells are complementary and essential for natural resistance to a highly lethal cytopathic virus. J Immunol 175: 6829–6836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Collier WA, Smit AM, von Heerde AF (1950) Demonstration of antihemagglutinins as an aid in the diagnosis of smallpox. Z Hyg Infektionskr 131: 555–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Downie AW, McCarthy K (1958) The antibody response in man following infection with viruses of the pox group. III. Antibody response in smallpox. J Hyg (Lond) 56: 479–487Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Downie AW, Saint VL, Goldstein L, Rao AR, Kempe CH (1969) Antibody response in non-haemorrhagic smallpox patients. J Hyg (Lond) 67: 609–618Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Herrlich A, Mayr A, Mahnel H (1959) Antibody picture of variola vaccine infection. II. Serological studies on variola patients. Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig] 175: 163–182Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    McCarthy K, Downie AW, Bradley WH (1958) The antibody response in man following infection with viruses of the pox group. II. Antibody response following vaccination. J Hyg (Lond) 56: 466–478Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Belshe RB, Newman FK, Frey SE, Couch RB, Treanor JJ, Tacket CO, Yan L (2004) Dose-dependent neutralizing-antibody responses to vaccinia. J Infect Dis 189: 493–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Frey SE, Newman FK, Yan L, Lottenbach KR, Belshe RB (2003) Response to smallpox vaccine in persons immunized in the distant past. JAMA 289: 3295–3299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Frey SE, Couch RB, Tacket CO, Treanor JJ, Wolff M, Newman FK, Atmar RL, Edelman R, Nolan CM, Belshe RB (2002) Clinical responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine. N Engl J Med 346: 1265–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Frey SE, Newman FK, Cruz J, Shelton WB, Tennant JM, Polach T, Rothman AL, Kennedy JS, Wolff M, Belshe RB, Ennis FA (2002) Dose-related effects of smallpox vaccine. N Engl J Med 346: 1275–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kennedy JS, Frey SE, Yan L, Rothman AL, Cruz J, Newman FK, Orphin L, Belshe RB, Ennis FA (2004) Induction of human T cell-mediated immune responses after primary and secondary smallpox vaccination. J Infect Dis 190: 1286–1294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Downie AW, Hobday TL, St Vincent L, Kempe CH (1961) Studies of smallpox antibody levels of sera from samples of the vaccinated adult population of Madras. Bull World Health Organ 25: 55–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Downie AW, Saint VL, Rao AR, Kempe CH (1969) Antibody response following smallpox vaccination and revaccination. J Hyg (Lond) 67: 603–608Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Herrlich A, Mayr A, Munz E (1956) Antibody picture of variola vaccine infection. I. Varying antibody formation in the vaccine infection of rabbits, monkeys and humans. Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig] 166: 73–83Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kempe CH, Benenson AS (1953) Vaccinia; passive immunity in newborn infants. I.Placental transmission of antibodies. II. Response to vaccinations. J Pediatr 42: 525–531Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hammarlund E, Lewis MW, Hansen SG, Strelow LI, Nelson JA, Sexton GJ, Hanifin JM, Slifka MK (2003) Duration of antiviral immunity after smallpox vaccination. Nat Med 9: 1131–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Crotty S, Felgner P, Davies H, Glidewell J, Villarreal L, Ahmed R (2003) Cutting edge: long-term B cell memory in humans after smallpox vaccination. J Immunol 171: 4969–4973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Barbero GJ, Gray A, Scott TF, Kempe CH (1955) Vaccinia gangrenosa treated with hyperimmune vaccinal gamma globulin. Pediatrics 16: 609–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kempe CH, Berge TO, England B (1956) Hyperimmune vaccinal gamma globulin; source, evaluation, and use in prophylaxis and therapy. Pediatrics 18: 177–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kempe CH, Bowles C, Meiklejohn G, Berge TO, St Vincent L, Babu BV, Govindarajan S, Ratnakannan NR, Downie AW, Murthy VR (1961) The use of vaccinia hyperimmune gamma-globulin in the prophylaxis of smallpox. Bull World Health Organ 25: 41–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Marennikova SS (1962) The use of hyperimmune antivaccinia gamma-globulin for the prevention and treatment of smallpox. Bull World Health Organ 27: 325–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Peirce ER, Melville FS, Downie AW, Duckworth MJ (1958) Anti-vaccinial gamma-globulin in smallpox prophylaxis. Lancet 2: 635–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sharp JC, Fletcher WB (1973) Experience of anti-vaccinia immunoglobulin in the United Kingdom. Lancet 1: 656–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hopkins RJ, Lane JM (2004) Clinical efficacy of intramuscular vaccinia immune globulin: a literature review. Clin Infect Dis 39: 819–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kempe CH (1960) Studies on smallpox and complications of smallpox vaccination. Pediatrics 26: 176–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Neff JM, Lane JM, Pert JH, Moore R, Millar JD, Henderson DA (1967) Complications of smallpox vaccination. I. National survey in the United States, 1963. N Engl J Med 276: 125–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Appleyard G, Hapel AJ, Boulter EA (1971) An antigenic difference between intracellular and extracellular rabbitpox virus. J Gen Virol 13: 9–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Belyakov IM, Earl P, Dzutsev A, Kuznetsov VA, Lemon M, Wyatt LS, Snyder JT, Ahlers JD, Franchini G, Moss B, Berzofsky JA (2003) Shared modes of protection against poxvirus infection by attenuated and conventional smallpox vaccine viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 9458–9463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Czerny CP, Mahnel H (1990) Structural and functional analysis of orthopoxvirus epitopes with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol 71: 2341–2352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Edghill-Smith Y, Golding H, Manischewitz J, King LR, Scott D, Bray M, Nalca A, Hooper JW, Whitehouse CA, Schmitz JE, Reimann KA, Franchini G (2005) Smallpox vaccine-induced antibodies are necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus. Nat Med 11: 740–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Galmiche MC, Goenaga J, Wittek R, Rindisbacher L (1999) Neutralizing and protective antibodies directed against vaccinia virus envelope antigens. Virology 254: 71–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jackson TM, Zaman SN, Huq F (1977) T and B rosetting lymphocytes in the blood of smallpox patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 517–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    O’Connel CJ, Karzon DT, Barron AL, Plaut ME, Ali VM (1964) Progressive vaccinia with normal antibodies. A case possibly due to deficient cellular immunity. Ann Intern Med 60: 282–289Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Redfield RR, Wright DC, James WD, Jones TS, Brown C, Burke DS (1987) Disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. N Engl J Med 316: 673–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Amara RR, Nigam P, Sharma S, Liu J, Bostik V (2004) Long-lived poxvirus immunity, robust CD4 help, and better persistence of CD4 than CD8 T cells. J Virol 78: 3811–3816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Combadiere B, Boissonnas A, Carcelain G, Lefranc E, Samri A, Bricaire F, Debre P, Autran B (2004) Distinct time effects of vaccination on long-term proliferative and IFN-gamma-producing T cell memory to smallpox in humans. J Exp Med 199: 1585–1593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ennis FA, Cruz J, Demkowicz WE Jr, Rothman AL, McClain DJ (2002) Primary induction of human CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and interferon-gamma-producing T cells after smallpox vaccination. J Infect Dis 185: 1657–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hsieh SM, Pan SC, Chen SY, Huang PF, Chang SC (2004) Age distribution for T cell reactivity to vaccinia virus in a healthy population. Clin Infect Dis 38: 86–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Littaua RA, Takeda A, Cruz J, Ennis FA (1992) Vaccinia virus-specific human CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones. J Virol 66: 2274–2280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Abate G, Eslick J, Newman FK, Frey SE, Belshe RB, Monath TP, Hoft DF (2005) Flow-cytometric detection of vaccinia-induced memory effector CD4(+), CD8(+), and gamma delta TCR(+) T cells capable of antigen-specific expansion and effector functions. J Infect Dis 192: 1362–1371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    von Herrath MG, Yokoyama M, Dockter J, Oldstone MB Whitton JL (1996) CD4-deficient mice have reduced levels of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes after immunization and show diminished resistance to subsequent virus challenge. J Virol 70: 1072–1079Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Janssen EM, Lemmens EE, Wolfe T, Christen U, von Herrath MG, Schoenberger SP (2003) CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes. Nature 421: 852–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shedlock DJ, Shen H (2003) Requirement for CD4 T cell help in generating functional CD8 T cell memory. Science 300: 337–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sun JC, Bevan MJ (2003) Defective CD8_T cell memory following acute infection without CD4 T cell help. Science 300: 339–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sun JC, Williams MA, Bevan MJ (2004) CD4+ T cells are required for the maintenance, not programming, of memory CD8+ T cells after acute infection. Nat Immunol 5: 927–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Appleyard G, Andrews C (1974) Neutralizing activities of antisera to poxvirus soluble antigens. J Gen Virol 23: 197–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Law M, Smith GL (2001) Antibody neutralization of the extracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus. Virology 280: 132–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bell E, Shamim M, Whitbeck JC, Sfyroera G, Lambris JD, Isaacs SN (2004) Antibodies against the extracellular enveloped virus B5R protein are mainly responsible for the EEV neutralizing capacity of vaccinia immune globulin. Virology 325: 425–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lustig S, Fogg C, Whitbeck JC, Moss B (2004) Synergistic neutralizing activities of antibodies to outer membrane proteins of the two infectious forms of vaccinia virus in the presence of complement. Virology 328: 30–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Demkowicz WE, Maa JS, Esteban M (1992) Identification and characterization of vaccinia virus genes encoding proteins that are highly antigenic in animals and are immunodominant in vaccinated humans. J Virol 66: 386–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hsiao JC, Chung CS, Chang W (1999) Vaccinia virus envelope D8L protein binds to cell surface chondroitin sulfate and mediates the adsorption of intracellular mature virions to cells. J Virol 73: 8750–8761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ichihashi Y, Oie M (1996) Neutralizing epitope on penetration protein of vaccinia virus. Virology 220: 491–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wolffe EJ, Vijaya S, Moss B (1995) A myristylated membrane protein encoded by the vaccinia virus L1R open reading frame is the target of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Virology 211: 53–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lin CL, Chung CS, Heine HG, Chang W (2000) Vaccinia virus envelope H3L protein binds to cell surface heparan sulfate and is important for intracellular mature virion morphogenesis and virus infection in vitro and in vivo. J Virol 74: 3353–3365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rodriguez JF, Janeczko R, Esteban M (1985) Isolation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to vaccinia virus. J Virol 56: 482–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Doolan DL, Southwood S, Freilich DA, Sidney J, Graber NL, Shatney L, Bebris L, Florens L, Dobano C, Witney AA et al (2003) Identification of Plasmodium falciparum antigens by antigenic analysis of genomic and proteomic data. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 9952–9957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Parker KC, Bednarek MA, Hull LK, Utz U, Cunningham B, Zweerink HJ, Biddison WE, Coligan JE (1992) Sequence motifs important for peptide binding to the human MHC class I molecule, HLA-A2. J Immunol 149: 3580–3587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Parker KC, Bednarek MA, Coligan JE (1994) Scheme for ranking potential HLA-A2 binding peptides based on independent binding of individual peptide side-chains. J Immunol 152: 163–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rammensee H, Bachmann J, Emmerich NP, Bachor OA, Stevanovic S (1999) SYFPEITHI: database for MHC ligands and peptide motifs. Immunogenetics 50: 213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Drexler I, Staib C, Kastenmuller W, Stevanovic S, Schmidt B, Lemonnier FA, Rammensee HG, Busch DH, Bernhard H, Erfle V, Sutter G (2003) Identification of vaccinia virus epitope-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted T cells and comparative analysis of smallpox vaccines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 217–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Terajima M, Cruz J, Raines G, Kilpatrick ED, Kennedy JS, Rothman AL, Ennis FA (2003) Quantitation of CD8+ T cell responses to newly identified HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitopes conserved among vaccinia and variola (smallpox) viruses. J Exp Med 197: 927–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Snyder JT, Belyakov IM, Dzutsev A, Lemonnier F, Berzofsky JA (2004) Protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge in HLA-A2 transgenic mice by immunization with a single CD8+ T-cell peptide epitope of vaccinia and variola viruses. J Virol 78: 7052–7060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Oseroff C, Kos F, Bui HH, Peters B, Pasquetto V, Glenn J, Palmore T, Sidney J, Tscharke DC, Bennink JR et al (2005) HLA class I-restricted responses to vaccinia recognize a broad array of proteins mainly involved in virulence and viral gene regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 13980–13985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pasquetto V, Bui HH, Giannino R, Mirza F, Sidney J, Oseroff C, Tscharke DC, Irvine K, Bennink JR, Peters B et al (2005) HLA-A*0201, HLA-A*1101, and HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice recognize numerous poxvirus determinants from a wide variety of viral gene products. J Immunol 175: 5504–5515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mathew A, Terajima M, West K, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Kennedy JS (2005) Identification of murine poxvirus-specific CD8+ CTL epitopes with distinct functional profiles. J Immunol 174: 2212–2219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Tscharke DC, Karupiah G, Zhou J, Palmore T, Irvine KR, Haeryfar SM, Williams S, Sidney J, Sette A, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW (2005) Identification of poxvirus CD8+ T cell determinants to enable rational design and characterization of smallpox vaccines. J Exp Med 201: 95–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jenner E (1798) An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccinae, a disease discovered in some of the western counties of England, particularly Gloucestershire, and known by the name of the cow pox, London Classics of medicine and surgery. Dover, New York, 213–240Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jezek Z, Fenner F (1988) Human Monkeypox. Monographs in Virology, No. 17. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mack TM, Noble J Jr, Thomas DB (1972) A prospective study of serum antibody and protection against smallpox. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21: 214–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sarkar JK, Mitra AC, Mukherjee MK (1975) The minimum protective level of antibodies in smallpox. Bull World Health Organ 52: 307–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stienlauf S, Shoresh M, Solomon A, Lublin-Tennenbaum T, Atsmon Y, Meirovich Y, Katz E (1999) Kinetics of formation of neutralizing antibodies against vaccinia virus following re-vaccination. Vaccine 17: 201–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Moller-Larsen A, Haahr S (1978) Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in humans before and after revaccination with vaccinia virus. Infect Immun 19: 34–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Viner KM, Isaacs SN (2005) Activity of vaccinia virus-neutralizing antibody in the sera of smallpox vaccines. Microbes Infect 7: 579–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Orr N, Forman M, Marcus H, Lustig S, Paran N, Grotto I, Klement E, Yehezkelli Y, Robin G, Reuveny S et al (2004) Clinical and immune responses after revaccination of Israeli adults with the Lister strain of vaccinia virus. J Infect Dis 190: 1295–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Moller-Larsen A, Haahr S, Heron I (1978) Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity in humans during revaccination with vaccinia virus. Infect Immun 21: 687–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Monath TP, Caldwell JR, Mundt W, Fusco J, Johnson CS, Buller M, Liu J, Gardner B, Downing G, Blum PS et al (2004) ACAM 2000 clonal Vero cell culture vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain)-a secondgeneration smallpox vaccine for biological defense. Int J Infect Dis 8(Suppl 2): S31–S44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Artenstein AW, Johnson C, Marbury TC, Morrison D, Blum PS, Kemp T, Nichols R, Balser JP, Currie M, Monath TP (2005) A novel, cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine in vaccinia-naive adults. Vaccine 23: 3301–3309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Greenberg RN, Kennedy JS, Clanton DJ, Plummer EA, Hague L, Cruz J, Ennis FA, Blackwelder WC, Hopkins RJ (2005) Safety and immunogenicity of new cell-cultured smallpox vaccine compared with calf-lymph derived vaccine: a blind, single-centre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 365: 398–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Drexler I, Staib C, Sutter G (2004) Modified vaccinia virus Ankara as antigen delivery system: how can we best use its potential? Curr Opin Biotechnol 15: 506–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Carroll MW, Moss B (1997) Host range and cytopathogenicity of the highly attenuated MVA strain of vaccinia virus: propagation and generation of recombinant viruses in a nonhuman mammalian cell line. Virology 238: 198–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Staib C, Kisling S, Erfle V, Sutter G (2005) Inactivation of the viral interleukin 1beta receptor improves CD8+ T-cell memory responses elicited upon immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara. J Gen Virol 86: 1997–2006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Blanchard TJ, Alcami A, Andrea P, Smith GL (1998) Modified vaccinia virus Ankara undergoes limited replication in human cells and lacks several immunomodulatory proteins: implications for use as a human vaccine. J Gen Virol 79: 1159–1167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Antoine G, Scheiflinger F, Dorner F, Falkner FG (1998) The complete genomic sequence of the modified vaccinia Ankara strain: comparison with other orthopoxviruses. Virology 244: 365–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Werner GT, Jentzsch U, Metzger E, Simon J (1980) Studies on poxvirus infections in irradiated animals. Arch Virol 64: 247–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Mayr A, Stickl H, Muller HK, Danner K, Singer H (1978) The smallpox vaccination strain MVA: marker, genetic structure, experience gained with the parenteral vaccination and behavior in organisms with a debilitated defence mechanism (author’s transl). Zentralbl Bakteriol B 167: 375–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hochstein-Mintzel V, Hanichen T, Huber HC, Stickl H (1975) An attenuated strain of vaccinia virus (MVA). Successful intramuscular immunization against vaccinia and variola (author’s transl). Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig A] 230: 283–297Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Meseda CA, Garcia AD, Kumar A, Mayer AE, Manischewitz J, King LR, Golding H, Merchlinsky M, Weir JP (2005) Enhanced immunogenicity and protective effect conferred by vaccination with combinations of modified vaccinia virus Ankara and licensed smallpox vaccine Dryvax in a mouse model. Virology 339: 164–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hashizume S, Yoshizawa H, Morita M, Suzuki K (1985) Properties of Attenuated Mutant of Vaccinia Virus, LC16m8, Derived from the Lister Strain. In: G Quinnan (ed): Vaccinia viruses as vectors for vaccine antigens. Elsevier, New York, 87–99Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Takahashi-Nishimaki F, Funahashi S, Miki K, Hashizume S, Sugimoto M (1991) Regulation of plaque size and host range by a vaccinia virus gene related to complement system proteins. Virology 181: 158–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Yamaguchi M, Kimura M, Hirayama M (1975) Report of the National Smallpox Vaccination Research Committee: study of side effects, complications and their treatments. Clin Virol 3: 269–278 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Empig C, Kenner JR, Perret-Gentil M, Youree BE, Bell E, Chen A, Gurwith M, Higgins K, Lock M, Rice AD et al (2005) Highly attenuated smallpox vaccine protects rabbits and mice against pathogenic orthopoxvirus challenge. Vaccine 24: 3686–3694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Boulter EA, Zwartouw HT, Titmuss DH, Maber HB (1971) The nature of the immune state produced by inactivated vaccinia virus in rabbits. Am J Epidemiol 94: 612–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lai CF, Gong SC, Esteban M (1991) The purified 14-kilodalton envelope protein of vaccinia virus produced in Escherichia coli induces virus immunity in animals. J Virol 65: 5631–5635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Law M, Putz MM, Smith GL (2005) An investigation of the therapeutic value of vaccinia-immune IgG in a mouse pneumonia model. J Gen Virol 86: 991–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hooper JW, Custer DM, Thompson E (2003) Four-gene-combination DNA vaccine protects mice against a lethal vaccinia virus challenge and elicits appropriate antibody responses in nonhuman primates. Virology 306: 181–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hooper JW, Thompson E, Wilhelmsen C, Zimmerman M, Ichou MA, Steffen SE, Schmaljohn CS, Schmaljohn AL, Jahrling PB (2004) Smallpox DNA vaccine protects nonhuman primates against lethal monkeypox. J Virol 78: 4433–4443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Fogg C, Lustig S, Whitbeck JC, Eisenberg RJ, Cohen GH, Moss B (2004) Protective immunity to vaccinia virus induced by vaccination with multiple recombinant outer membrane proteins of intracellular and extracellular virions. J Virol 78: 10230–10237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren M. Handley
    • 1
  • J. Paige Mackey
    • 1
  • R. Mark Buller
    • 1
  • Clifford J. Bellone
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Microbiology and ImmunologySaint Louis University Health Sciences CenterSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations