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Carotenoids pp 149-172 | Cite as

Carotenoids as Provitamin A

  • Guangwen Tang
  • Robert M. Russell
Part of the Carotenoids book series (CAROT, volume 5)

Abstract

In 1930, Moore discovered that β-carotene (3) could be converted in vivo into vitamin A [1]. Since then, the vitamin A values of β-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids, particularly α-carotene (7) and β-cryptoxanthin (55), have been investigated by various techniques. As discussed in Chapter 9, vitamin A nutrition is of worldwide interest; deficiency of the vitamin remains a problem in developing countries, affecting 75 to 140 million children [2]. Deficiency of vitamin A (VAD) can result in visual malfunction such as night blindness and xerophthalmia [3], and can impair immune function [4], resulting in an increased incidence and/or severity of respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections [5], and measles [6]. Vitamin A levels in HIV-positive children are lower than those in HIV-negative children [7].

Keywords

Retinoic Acid Serum Retinol Retinyl Palmitate Retinyl Ester Retinyl Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guangwen Tang
    • 1
  • Robert M. Russell
    • 2
  1. 1.Carotenoids and Health Laboratory Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on AgingTufts UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.National Institutes of HealthWashington DCUSA

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