Advertisement

Carotenoids pp 45-66 | Cite as

Carotenoids in Food

  • George Britton
  • Frederick Khachik
Part of the Carotenoids book series (CAROT, volume 5)

Abstract

No members of the animal kingdom, including humans, can synthesize carotenoids. Even those animals (birds, fish, invertebrates) that use carotenoids for colouration must obtain them from the diet. Although humans, being mammals, are normally not coloured by carotenoids, analysis of human blood and tissues reveals a significant content of carotenoids which, as discussed later in this book, are associated with good health and reduced risk of diseases. Although some carotenoids are added to manufactured foods as colourants, or are taken as supplements (Chapter 4), most ingested carotenoid is obtained direct from natural food, especially vegetables and fruit.

Keywords

Sweet Potato Carotenoid Content Geometrical Isomerization Carotenoid Concentration Green Vegetable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, A Guide to Carotenoid Analysis in Foods, ILSI, Washington DC (1999).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    F. Khachik, G. R. Beecher and N. F. Whittaker, J. Agric. Food Chem., 34, 603 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    F. Khachik, G. R. Beecher, M. B. Goli and W. R. Lusby, Pure Appl. Chem., 63, 71 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    T. W. Goodwin, The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, Vol. 1: Plants, Chapman and Hall, London (1980).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    T. W. Goodwin and L. J. Goad, in The Biochemistry of Fruits and their Products, Vol. 1 (ed. A. C. Hulme), p. 305, Academic Press, London and New York (1970).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    F. Khachik and G. R. Beecher, J. Agric. Food Chem., 35, 732 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    F. Khachik, G. R. Beecher and W. R. Lusby, J. Agric. Food Chem., 37, 1465(1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    F. Khachik, M. B. Goli, G. R. Beecher, J. Holden, W. R. Lusby, M. D. Tenorio and M. R. Barrera, J. Agric. Food Chem., 40, 390 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    L. H. Tonucci, J. M. Holden, G. R. Beecher, F. Khachik, C. S. Davis and G. Mulokozi, J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 579 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    F. Khachik, G. R. Beecher, M. B. Goli and W. R. Lusby, Meth. Enzymol., 213, 347 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    F. Khachik and G. R. Beecher, J. Agric. Food Chem., 36, 929 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    F. Khachik, G. R. Beecher and W. R. Lusby, J. Agric. Food Chem., 36, 938 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. Deli, Z. Matus, P. Molnár, G. Toth, G. Szalontai, A. Steck and H. Pfander, Chimia, 48, 102, (1994).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    H. Kläui and J. C. Bauernfeind, in Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors (ed. J. C. Bauernfeind), p. 48, Academic Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    L. Laferriere and W. H. Gabelman, Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 93, 408 (1968).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    A. E. Joyce, Nature, 173, 311 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    F. W. Quackenbush, J. G. Firsch, A. M. Brunson and L. R. House, Cereal Chem., 40, 250 (1963).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    I. Potrykus, Plant Physiol., 125, 157 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. H. Humphries and F. Khachik, J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 1322 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    M. H. Dickson, C. Y. Lee and A. E. Blamble, Hort. Sci., 23, 778 (1988).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    A. S. H. Ong and S. H. Goh, Food Nutr. Bull., 23, 11 (2002).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    H. T. Godoy and D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, Arq. Biol. Tecnol., 38, 109 (1995).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    C. K. Shewmaker, J. A. Sheehy, M. Daley, S. Colburn and D. Y. Ke, Plant J., 20, 401 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    L. T. Vuong, Food Nutr. Bull., 21, 173 (2000).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, in Shelf-life Studies of Foods and Beverages: Chemical, Physical and Nutritional Aspects (ed. G. Charalambous), p. 591, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1993).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    J. Gross, Pigments in Fruits, Academic Press, London. (1987).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    J. Gross, Pigments in Vegetables: Chlorophylls and Carotenoids, Avi: Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1991).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    K. L. Simpsom and S. C. S. Tsou, in Vitamin A Deficiency and its Control (ed. J. C. Bauernfeind), p. 461, Academic Press, Orlando (1986).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    A. Sommer and K. P. West Jr., Vitamin A Deficiency. Health, Survival and Vision, Chapter 13, Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford (1996).Google Scholar
  30. [32]
    D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, Sight and Life Newsletter 3/2002, 25 (2002).Google Scholar
  31. [33]
    D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, Carotenoids and Food Preparation: The Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Prepared, Processed and Stored Foods, OMNI, Arlington (1997).Google Scholar
  32. [34]
    F. Khachik, G. R. Beecher and M. B. Goli, Anal. Chem., 64, 2111 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [35]
    F. Khachik, C. J. Spangler, J. C. Smith Jr., L. M. Canfield, A. Steck and H. Pfander, Anal. Chem., 69, 1873(1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [36]
    S. Aziz, Z. Wu and D. S. Robinson, Food Chem., 64, 227 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [37]
    Y. Wache, A. Bosser-DeRatuld, J.-C. Lhuguenot and J.-M. Belin, J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 1984 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [38]
    W. J. Lessin, G. L. Catigani and S. J. Schwartz, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 3728 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [39]
    G. Britton, L. Gambelli, P. Dunphy, P. Pudney and M. Gidley, in Functionalities of Pigments in Food (ed. J. A. Empis), p. 151, Sociedade Portuguesa de Quimica, Lisbon (2002).Google Scholar
  38. [40]
    S. J. Schwartz, in Pigments in Food: A Challenge to Life Science (ed. R. Carle, A. Schieber and F. S. Stintzing), p. 114, Shaker Verlag, Aachen (2006).Google Scholar
  39. [41 ]
    F. J. Francis and F. M. Clydesdale, Food Colorimetry: Theory and Applications, AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT (1975).Google Scholar
  40. [42]
    A. J. Melendez-Martinez, G. Britton, I. M. Vicario and F. J. Heredia, Food Chem., 101, 1145(2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [43]
    A. J. Melendez-Martinez, I. M. Vicario and F. J. Heredia, J. Sci. Food Agric., 85, 894 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [44]
    A. J. Melendez-Martinez, I. M. Vicario and F. J. Heredia, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2808 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Britton
    • 1
  • Frederick Khachik
  1. 1.UK

Personalised recommendations