Carotenoids pp 235-268 | Cite as

Antioxidant/Pro-oxidant Actions of Carotenoids

  • Kyung-Jin Yeum
  • Giancarlo Aldini
  • Robert M. Russell
  • Norman I. Krinsky
Part of the Carotenoids book series (CAROT, volume 5)


In recent years numerous reviews have discussed in detail the antioxidant action of carotenoids [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The existence of an antioxidant effect has been questioned by some, however [6]. In addition, there is the complication that, under some circumstances, carotenoids exhibit a pro-oxidant effect [7,8], although some authors do not believe that this occurs in vivo [9]. The fundamental chemistry of carotenoid radicals and radical ions, as a basis for understanding mechanisms of antioxidant/pro-oxidant actions, is presented in Volume 4, Chapter 7.


Lipid Peroxidation Comet Assay Total Antioxidant Capacity Peroxyl Radical Macular Pigment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    N. I. Krinsky, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 854, 443 (1998).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    N. I. Krinsky, Nutrition, 17, 815 (2001).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    N. I. Krinsky and K. J. Yeum, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 305, 754 (2003).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    S. A. Paiva and R. M. Russell, J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 18, 426 (1999).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    P. Palozza and N. I. Krinsky, Meth. Enzymol., 213, 403 (1992).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C. A. Rice-Evans, J. Sampson, P. M. Bramley and D. E. Holloway, Free Radic. Res., 26, 381 (1997).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    R. Edge and T. G. Truscott, Nutrition, 13, 992 (1997).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    P. Palozza, Nutr. Rev., 56, 257 (1998).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. J. Young and G. M. Lowe, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 385, 20 (2001).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    L. Gate, J. Paul, G. N. Ba, K. D. Tew and H. Tapiero, Biomed. Pharmacother., 53, 169 (1999).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    K. Hensley and R. A. Floyd, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 397, 377 (2002).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    E. Cadenas and K. J. Davies, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 29, 222 (2000).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    V. J. Thannickal and B. L. Fanburg, Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol., 279, L1005 (2000).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    C. Ceconi, A. Boraso, A. Cargnoni and R. Ferrari, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 420, 217 (2003).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. Valkonen and T. Kuusi, J. Lipid Res., 38, 823 (1997).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    K. Uchida, M. Shiraishi, Y. Naito, Y. Torii, Y. Nakamura and T. Osawa, J. Biol. Chem., 274, 2234 (1999).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    E. Niki, T. Saito, A. Kawakami and Y. Kamiya, J. Biol. Chem., 259, 4177 (1984).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    K. Fukuzawa, K. Matsuura, A. Tokumura, A. Suzuki and J. Terao, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 22, 923 (1997).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    I. M. Lee, N. R. Cook, J. M. Gaziano, D. Gordon, P. M. Ridker, J. E. Manson, C. H. Hennekens and J. E. Buring, JAMA, 294, 56 (2005).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    K. J. Yeum, G. Aldini, H. Y. Chung, N. I. Krinsky and R. M. Russell, J. Nutr., 133, 2688 (2003).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    G. Cao, H. M. Alessio and R. G. Cutler, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 14, 303 (1993).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    R. L. Prior, H. Hoang, L. Gu, X. Wu, M. Bacchiocca, L. Howard, M. Hampsch-Woodill, D. Huang, B. Ou and R. Jacob, J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 3273 (2003).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    G. Aldini, K. J. Yeum, R. M. Russell and N. I. Krinsky, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 31, 1043 (2001).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    A. Ghiselli, M. Serafini, G. Maiani, E. Azzini and A. Ferro-Luzzi, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 18, 29 (1995).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    G. Cao, C. P. Verdon, A. H. Wu, H. Wang and R. L. Prior, Clin. Chem., 41, 1738 (1995).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    N. J. Miller, C. Rice-Evans, M. J. Davies, V. Gopinathan and A. Milner, Clin. Sci., 84, 407 (1993).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    R. Re, N. Pellegrini, A. Proteggente, A. Pannala, M. Yang and C. Rice-Evans, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 26, 1231 (1999).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    I. F. Benzie and J. J. Strain, Anal. Biochem., 239, 70 (1996).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    F. Tubaro, A. Ghiselli, P. Rapuzzi, M. Maiorino and F. Ursini, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 24, 1228 (1998).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    M. Kampa, A. Nistikaki, V. Tsaousis, N. Maliaraki, G. Notas and E. Castanas, BMC Clin. Pathol., 2, 3 (2002).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    B. Mayer, M. Schumacher, H. Brandstatter, F. S. Wagner and A. Hermetter, Anal. Biochem,. 297, 144 (2001).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    N. Pellegrini, P. Riso and M. Porrini, Nutrition, 16, 268 (2000).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    J. J. Castenmiller, S. T. Lauridsen, L. O. Dragsted, K. H. van het Hof, J. P. Linssen and C. E. West, J. Nutr., 129, 2162 (1999).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    S. Lussignoli, M. Fraccaroli, G. Andrioli, G. Brocco and P. Bellavite, Anal. Biochem., 269, 38 (1999).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    G. Cao, S. L. Booth, J. A. Sadowski and R. L. Prior, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 68, 1081 (1998).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    D. D. Wayner, G. W. Burton, K. U. Ingold, L. R. Barclay and S. J. Locke, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 924, 408 (1987).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    G. Cao and R. L. Prior, Clin. Chem., 44, 1309 (1998).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    M. Serafini, A. Ghiselli and A. Ferro-Luzzi, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 50, 28 (1996).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    I. F. Benzie and Y. T. Szeto, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 47, 633 (1999).Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    D. Rein, T. G. Paglieroni, D. A. Pearson, T. Wun, H. H. Schmitz, R. Gosselin and C. L. Keen, J. Nutr., 130, 2120S (2000).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    M. Serafini, G. Maiani and A. Ferro-Luzzi, J. Nutr., 128, 1003 (1998).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    F. Natella, M. Nardini, I. Giannetti, C. Dattilo and C. Scaccini, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 6211 (2002).Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    G. Cao, R. M. Russell, N. Lischner and R. L. Prior, J. Nutr., 128, 2383 (1998).Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    V. Böhm and R. Bitsch, Eur. J. Nutr., 38, 118 (1999).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    A. Bub, B. Watzl, L. Abrahamse, H. Delincee, S. Adam, J. Wever, H. Müller and G. Rechkemmer, J. Nutr., 130, 2200 (2000).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    N. J. Miller, J. Sampson, L. P. Candeias, P. M. Bramley and C. A. Rice-Evans, FEBS Lett., 384, 240 (1996).Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    V. Böhm, N. L. Puspitasari-Nienaber, M. G. Ferruzzi and S. J. Schwartz, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 221 (2002).Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    G. Aldini, I. Dalle-Donne, R. M. Facino, A. Milzani and M. Carini, Med. Res. Rev., (2006).Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    D. R. Janero, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 9, 515 (1990).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Z. R. Dixon, F. S. Shie, B. A. Warden, B. J. Burri and T. R. Neidlinger, J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 17, 54 (1998).Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    K. Kikugawa, K. Hiramoto and A. Hirama, Free Radic. Res., 31, 517 (1999).Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    J. D. Morrow, B. Frei, A. W. Longmire, J. M. Gaziano, S. M. Lynch, Y. Shyr, W. E. Strauss, J. A. Oates and L. J. Roberts, 2nd, New Engl. J. Med., 332, 1198 (1995).Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    P. Montuschi, P. J. Barnes and L. J. Roberts, 2nd, FASEB J., 18, 1791 (2004).Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    A. W. Longmire, L. L. Swift, L. J. Roberts, 2nd, J. A. Awad, R. F. Burk and J. D. Morrow, Biochem. Pharmacol., 47, 1173 (1994).Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    L. J. Roberts, 2nd and J. D. Morrow, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1345, 121 (1997).Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    S. T. Mayne, M. Walter, B. Cartmel, W. J. Goodwin, Jr. and J. Blumberg, Nutr. Cancer, 49, 1 (2004).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    A. C. Kaliora, G. V. Z. Dedoussis and H. Schmidt, Atherosclerosis, 187, 1 (2006).Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    L. Chancharme, P. Therond, F. Nigon, S. Zarev, A. Mallet, E. Bruckert and M. J. Chapman, J. Lipid Res., 43, 453 (2002).Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    M. Takaku, Y. Wada, K. Jinnouchi, M. Takeya, K. Takahashi, H. Usuda, M. Naito, H. Kurihara, Y. Yazaki, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Okimoto, M. Umetani, N. Noguchi, E. Niki, T. Hamakubo and T. Kodama, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 19, 2330 (1999).Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    S. Voutilainen, J. D. Morrow, L. J. Roberts, 2nd, G. Alfthan, H. Alho, K. Nyyssonen and J. T. Salonen, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 19, 1263 (1999).Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    K. U. Ingold, V. W. Bowry, R. Stocker and C. Walling, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 90, 45 (1993).Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    H. Yasuda, N. Noguchi, M. Miki, W. Morinobu, K. Hirano, T. Ogihara, T. Tanabe, M. Mino, K. Terao and E. Niki, Chem. Biol. Interact., 97, 11 (1995).Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    O. Ziouzenkova, A. Sevanian, P. M. Abuja, P. Ramos and H. Esterbauer, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 24, 607 (1998).Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    A. Collins, M. Dusinska, M. Franklin, M. Somorovska, H. Petrovska, S. Duthie, L. Fillion, M. Panayiotidis, K. Raslova and N. Vaughan, Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 30, 139 (1997).Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    A. R. Collins, Mutation Res., 475, 21 (2001).Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    A. R. Proteggente, A. Rehman, B. Halliwell and C. A. Rice-Evans, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 277, 535 (2000).Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    A. Mortensen, L. H. Skibsted, J. Sampson, C. Rice-Evans and S. A. Everett, FEBS Lett., 418, 91 (1997).Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    G. Aldini, M. Orioli, M. Carini and R. M. Facino, J. Mass Spectrom., 39, 1417 (2004).Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    M. Carini, G. Aldini and R. M. Facino, Mass Spectrom. Rev., 23, 281 (2004).Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    K. Uchida, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 28, 1685 (2000).Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    G. Poli and R. J. Schaur, IUBMB Life, 50, 315 (2000).Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    E. Nara, H. Hayashi, M. Kotake, K. Miyashita and A. Nagao, Nutr. Cancer, 39, 273 (2001).Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    W. Siems, O. Sommerburg, L. Schild, W. Augustin, C. D. Langhans and I. Wiswedel, FASEB J., 16, 1289 (2002).Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    W. G. Siems, O. Sommerburg, J. S. Hurst and F. J. van Kuijk, Free Radic. Res., 33, 427 (2000).Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    S. L. Yeh and M. L. Hu, Free Radic. Res., 35, 203 (2001).Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    G. W. Burton and K. U. Ingold, Science, 224, 569 (1984).Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    C. A. Tracewell, A. Cua, D. H. Stewart, D. F. Bocian and G. W. Brudvig, Biochemistry, 40, 193 (2001).Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    A. A. Woodall, S. W. Lee, R. J. Weesie, M. J. Jackson and G. Britton, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1336, 33 (1997).Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    D. L. Baker, E. S. Krol, N. Jacobsen and D. C. Liebler, Chem. Res. Toxicol., 12, 535 (1999).Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    A. A. Woodall, G. Britton and M. J. Jackson, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 23, 133S (1995).Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Y. L. Carroll, B. M. Corridan and P. A. Morrissey, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 54, 500 (2000).Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    P. Palozza and N. I. Krinsky, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 297, 184 (1992).Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    D. C. Liebler, S. P. Stratton and K. L. Kaysen, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 338, 244 (1997).Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    H. P. McNulty, J. Byun, S. F. Lockwood, R. F. Jacob and R. P. Mason, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1768, 167 (2007).Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    P. Palozza, G. Agostara, E. Piccioni and G. M. Bartoli, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 312, 88 (1994).Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    K. Hiramoto, S. Tomiyama and K. Kikugawa, Free Radic. Res., 30, 21 (1999).Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    T. R. Dugas, D. W. Morel and E. H. Harrison, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 26, 1238 (1999).Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Y. Levy, M. Kaplan, A. Ben-Amotz and M. Aviram, Isr. J. Med. Sci,. 32, 473 (1996).Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Y. Lin, B. J. Burri, T. R. Neidlinger, H. G. Muller, S. R. Dueker and A. J. Clifford, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67, 837 (1998).Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    M. Chopra, M. E. O’Neill, N. Keogh, G. Wortley, S. Southon and D. I. Thurnham, Clin. Chem., 46, 1818 (2000).Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    S. Agarwal and A. V. Rao, Lipids, 33, 981 (1998).Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    O. M. Panasenko, V. S. Sharov, K. Briviba and H. Sies, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 373, 302 (2000).Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    T. R. Dugas, D. W. Morel and E. H. Harrison, J. Lipid Res., 39, 999 (1998).Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    A. J. Wright, S. Southon, M. Chopra, A. Meyer-Wenger, U. Moser, F. Granado, B. Olmedilla, B. Corridan, I. Hinninger, A. M. Roussel, H. van den Berg and D. I. Thurnham, Br. J. Nutr., 87, 21 (2002).Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    X. D. Wang, N. I. Krinsky, R. P. Marini, G. Tang, J. Yu, R. Hurley, J. G. Fox and R. M. Russell, Am. J. Physiol., 263, G480 (1992).Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    J. Pollack, J. M. Campbell, S. M. Potter and J. W. Erdman Jr., J. Nutr., 124, 869 (1994).Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    C. L. Poor, T. L. Bierer, N. R. Merchen, G. C. Fahey Jr., M. R. Murphy and J. W. Erdman Jr., J. Nutr., 122, 262 (1992).Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    M. C. Delmas-Beauvieux, E. Peuchant, A. Couchouron, J. Constans, C. Sergeant, M. Simonoff, J. L. Pellegrin, B. Leng, C. Conri and M. Clerc, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 64, 101 (1996).Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    A. Lee, D. I. Thurnham and M. Chopra, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 29, 1051 (2000).Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D.-Y. Zhao and N. B. Katz, Exp. Eye Res., 72, 215 (2001).Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    R. Demirbag, R. Yilmaz and A. Kocyigit, Mutation Res., 570, 197 (2005).Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    P. Sanchez, R. Penarroja, F. Gallegos, J. L. Bravo, E. Rojas and L. Benitez-Bribiesca, Arch. Med. Res., 35, 480 (2004).Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    T. R. Smith, M. S. Miller, K. K. Lohman, L. D. Case and J. J. Hu, Carcinogenesis, 24, 883 (2003).Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    O. Palyvoda, J. Polanska, A. Wygoda and J. Rzeszowska-Wolny, Acta Biochim. Pol., 50, 181 (2003).Google Scholar
  105. [105]
    M. Dusinska, B. Vallova, M. Ursinyova, V. Hladikova, B. Smolkova, L. Wsolova, K. Raslova and A. R. Collins, Food Chem. Toxicol., 40, 1119 (2002).Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    H. J. Thompson, J. Heimendinger, A. Haegele, S. M. Sedlacek, C. Gillette, C. O’Neill, P. Wolfe and C. Conry, Carcinogenesis, 20, 2261 (1999).Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    P. Moller, U. Vogel, A. Pedersen, L. O. Dragsted, B. Sandstrom and S. Loft, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers. Prev., 12, 1016 (2003).Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    P. Riso, F. Visioli, C. Gardana, S. Grande, A. Brusamolino, F. Galvano, G. Galvano and M. Porrini, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 941 (2005).Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    M. Porrini and P. Riso, J. Nutr., 130, 189 (2000).Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    P. Riso, A. Pinder, A. Santangelo and M. Porrini, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 712 (1999).Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    M. Porrini, P. Riso and G. Oriani, Eur. J. Nutr., 41, 95 (2002).Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    M. Porrini, P. Riso, A. Brusamolino, C. Berti, S. Guarnieri and F. Visioli, Br. J. Nutr., 93, 93 (2005).Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    B. L. Pool-Zobel, A. Bub, H. Muller, I. Wollowski and G. Rechkemmer, Carcinogenesis, 18, 1847 (1997).Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    A. Bub, B. Watzl, M. Blockhaus, K. Briviba, U. Liegibel, H. Muller, B. L. Pool-Zobel and G. Rechkemmer, J. Nutr. Biochem., 14, 90 (2003).Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    L. Chen, M. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, C. Duncan, R. Sharifi, L. Ghosh, R. van Breemen, D. Ashton and P. E. Bowen, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 93, 1872 (2001).Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    P. Bowen, L. Chen, M. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, C. Duncan, R. Sharifi, L. Ghosh, H. S. Kim, K. Christov-Tzelkov and R. van Breemen, Exp. Biol. Med., 227, 886 (2002).Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    K. Briviba, A. Bub, J. Moseneder, T. Schwerdtle, A. Hartwig, S. Kulling and B. Watzel, Nutr. Cancer, 60, 164 (2008).Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    P. P. Hoppe, K. Krämer, H. van den Berg, G. Steenge and T. van Vliet, Eur. J. Nutr., 42, 272 (2003).Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    P. Riso, A. Brusamolino, S. Ciappellano and M. Porrini, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 73, 201 (2003).Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    S. J. Duthie, A. Ma, M. A. Ross and A. R. Collins, Cancer Res., 56, 1291 (1996).Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    P. Riso, F. Visioli, D. Erba, G. Testolin and M. Porrini, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 1350 (2004).Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    S. B. Astley, R. M. Elliott, D. B. Archer and S. Southon, Br. J. Nutr., 91, 63 (2004).Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    A. R. Collins, B. Olmedilla, S. Southon, F. Granado and S. J. Duthie, Carcinogenesis, 19, 2159 (1998).Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    A. C. Torbergsen and A. R. Collins, Eur. J. Nutr., 39, 80 (2000).Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    X. Zhao, G. Aldini, E. J. Johnson, H. Rasmussen, K. Kraemer, H. Woolf, N. R. Musaeus, N. I. Krinsky, R. M. Russell and K.-J. Yeum, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83, 163 (2006).Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    S. Devaraj, S. Mathur, A. Basu, H. H. Aung, V. T. Vasu. S. Meyers and I. Jialal, J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 27, 267 (2008).Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    S. B. Astley, D. A. Hughes, A. J. Wright, R. M. Elliott and S. Southon, Br. J. Nutr., 91, 53 (2004).Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    H. S. Olcovich and H. A. Mattill, J. Biol. Chem., 91, 105 (1931).Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, New Engl. J. Med., 330, 1029 (1994).Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    G. S. Omenn, G. E. Goodman, M.D. Thornquist, J. Balmes, M. R. Cullen, A. Glass, J. Keogh, F.L. Meyskens Jr., B. Valanis, J.H. Williams Jr., S. Barnhart and S. Hammar, New Engl. J. Med., 334, 1150 (1996)Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    M. Touvier, E. Kesse, F. Clavel-Chapelon and M. C. Boutron-Ruault, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 97, 1338 (2005).Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    L. Gallicchio, K. Boyd, G. Matanoski, X. G. Tao, L. Chen, T. K. Lam, M. Shiels, E. Hammond, K. A. Robinson, L. E. Caulfield, J. G. Herman, E. Guallar and A. J. Alberg, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 88, 372 (2008).Google Scholar
  133. [133]
    G. M. Lowe, R. F. Bilton, I. G. Davies, T. C. Ford, D. Billington and A. J. Young, Ann. Clin. Biochem., 36, 323 (1999).Google Scholar
  134. [134]
    P. Palozza, G. Calviello, S. Serini, N. Maggiano, P. Lanza, F. O. Ranelletti and G. M. Bartoli, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 30, 1000 (2001).Google Scholar
  135. [135]
    P. Palozza, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1740, 215 (2005).Google Scholar
  136. [136]
    N. E. Polyakov, T. V. Leshina, T. A. Konovalova and L. D. Kispert, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 31, 398 (2001).Google Scholar
  137. [137]
    P. Palozza, G. Calviello and G. M. Bartoli, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 19, 887 (1995).Google Scholar
  138. [138]
    P. Palozza, C. Luberto, G. Calviello, P. Ricci and G. M. Bartoli, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 22, 1065 (1997).Google Scholar
  139. [139]
    P. Zhang and S. T. Omaye, Toxicol. In Vitro, 15, 13 (2001).Google Scholar
  140. [140]
    A. El-Agamey, G. M. Lowe, D. J. McGarvey, A. Mortensen, D. M. Phillip, T. G. Truscott and A. J. Young, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 430, 37 (2004).Google Scholar
  141. [141]
    P. Palozza, S. Serini, S. Trombino, L. Lauriola, F. O. Ranelletti and G. Calviello, Carcinogenesis, 27, 2383 (2006).Google Scholar
  142. [142]
    K. Wertz, N. Seifert, P. B. Hunziker, G. Riss, A. Wyss, C. Lankin and R. Goralczyk, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 37, 654 (2004).Google Scholar
  143. [143]
    N. Bando, H. Hayashi, S. Wakamatsu, T. Inakuma, M. Miyoshi, A. Nagao, R. Yamauchi and J. Terao, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 37, 1854 (2004).Google Scholar
  144. [144]
    U. C. Obermüller-Jevic, P. I. Francz, J. Frank, A. Flaccus and H. K. Biesalski, FEBS Lett., 460, 212 (1999).Google Scholar
  145. [145]
    U. C. Obermüller-Jevic, B. Schlegel, A. Flaccus and H. K. Biesalski, FEBS Lett., 509, 186 (2001).Google Scholar
  146. [146]
    E. A. Offord, J. C. Gautier, O. Avanti, C. Scaletta, F. Runge, K. Krämer and L. A. Applegate, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 32, 1293 (2002).Google Scholar
  147. [147]
    S. L. Yeh, W. Y. Wang, C. H. Huang and M. L. Hu, J. Nutr. Biochem., 16, 729 (2005).Google Scholar
  148. [148]
    J. Fiedor, L. Fiedor, R. Haessner and H. Scheer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1709, 1 (2005).Google Scholar
  149. [149]
    W. Siems, I. Wiswedel, C. Salerno, C. Crifo, W. Augustin, L. Schild, C. D. Langhans and O. Sommerburg, J. Nutr. Biochem., 16, 385 (2005).Google Scholar
  150. [150]
    O. Sommerburg, C. D. Langhans, J. Arnhold, M. Leichsenring, C. Salerno, C. Crifo, G. F. Hoffmann, K. M. Debatin and W. G. Siems, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 35, 1480 (2003).Google Scholar
  151. [151]
    A. J. Alija, N. Bresgen, O. Sommerburg, W. Siems and P. M. Eckl, Carcinogenesis, 25, 827 (2004).Google Scholar
  152. [152]
    N. M. Kalariya, K. V. Ramana, S. K. Srivastava and F. J. Van Kuijk, Exp. Eye Res., 86, 70 (2008).Google Scholar
  153. [153]
    A. J. Alija, N. Bresgen, O. Sommerburg, C. D. Langhans, W. Siems and P. M. Eckl, Biofactors, 24, 159 (2005).Google Scholar
  154. [154]
    A. J. Alija, N. Bresgen, O. Sommerburg, C. D. Langhans, W. Siems and P. M. Eckl, Carcinogenesis, 27, 1128 (2006).Google Scholar
  155. [155]
    H. McNulty, R. F. Jacob and R. P. Mason, Am. J. Cardiol., 101, 20D (2008).Google Scholar
  156. [156]
    D. P. Gelain, M. A. de Bittencourt Pasquali, F. F. Caregnato, A. Zanotto-Filho and J. C. Moreira, Toxicol. In Vitro, 22, 1123 (2008).Google Scholar
  157. [157]
    A. C. Carr, M. R. McCall and B. Frei, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 20, 1716 (2000).Google Scholar
  158. [158]
    P. Palozza, S. Serini, F. Di Nicuolo, A. Boninsegna, A. Torsello, N. Maggiano, F. O. Ranelletti, F. I. Wolf, G. Calviello and A. Cittadini, Carcinogenesis, 25, 1315 (2004).Google Scholar
  159. [159]
    H. van den Berg, Nutr. Rev., 57, 1 (1999).Google Scholar
  160. [160]
    D. W. Nierenberg, B. J. Dain, L. A. Mott, J. A. Baron and E. R. Greenberg, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 66, 315 (1997).Google Scholar
  161. [161]
    U. Heinrich, C. Gärtner, M. Wiebusch, O. Eichler, H. Sies, H. Tronnier and W. Stahl, J. Nutr., 133, 98 (2003).Google Scholar
  162. [162]
    S. Kiokias and M. H. Gordon, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1135 (2003).Google Scholar
  163. [163]
    E. Niki, N. Noguchi, H. Tsuchihashi and N. Gotoh, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 62, 1322S (1995).Google Scholar
  164. [164]
    M. Burke, R. Edge, E. J. Land and T. G. Truscott, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, 60, 1 (2001).Google Scholar
  165. [165]
    A. Mortensen and L. H. Skibsted, FEBS Lett., 417, 261 (1997).Google Scholar
  166. [166]
    T. J. Hill, E. J. Land, D. J. McGarvey, W. Schalch, J. H. Tinkler and T. G. Truscott, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 117, 8322 (1995).Google Scholar
  167. [167]
    A. El-Agamey, A. Cantrell, E. J. Land, D. J. McGarvey and T. G. Truscott, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 3, 802 (2004).Google Scholar
  168. [168]
    F. Bohm, R. Edge, E. J. Land and T. G. Truscott, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 119, 621 (1997).Google Scholar
  169. [169]
    G. R. Buettner, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 300, 535 (1993).Google Scholar
  170. [170]
    R. Edge, E. J. Land, D. J. McGarvey, M. Burke and T. G. Truscott, FEBS Lett., 471, 125 (2000).Google Scholar
  171. [171]
    J. Shi, Y. Kakuda and D. Yeung, Biofactors, 21, 203 (2004).Google Scholar
  172. [172]
    K. Volkovova, M. Barancokova, A. Kazimirova, A. Collins, K. Raslova, B. Smolkova, A. Horska, L. Wsolova and M. Dusinska, Free Radic. Res., 39, 659 (2005).Google Scholar
  173. [173]
    D. P. Vivekananthan, M. S. Penn, S. K. Sapp, A. Hsu and E. J. Topol, Lancet, 361, 2017 (2003).Google Scholar
  174. [174]
    E. R. Miller 3rd, R. Pastor-Barriuso, D. Dalal, R. A. Riemersma, L. J. Appel and E. Guallar, Ann. Intern. Med., 142, 37 (2005).Google Scholar
  175. [175]
    P. Knekt, J. Ritz, M. A. Pereira, E. J. O’Reilly, K. Augustsson, G. E. Fraser, U. Goldbourt, B. L. Heitmann, G. Hallmans, S. Liu, P. Pietinen, D. Spiegelman, J. Stevens, J. Virtamo, W. C. Willett, E. B. Rimm and A. Ascherio, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 1508 (2004).Google Scholar
  176. [176]
    R. S. Eidelman, D. Hollar, P. R. Hebert, G. A. Lamas and C. H. Hennekens, Arch. Intern. Med., 164, 1552 (2004).Google Scholar
  177. [177]
    S. K. Osganian, M. J. Stampfer, E. Rimm, D. Spiegelman, J. E. Manson and W. C. Willett, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 77, 1390 (2003).Google Scholar
  178. [178]
    H. C. Hung, K. J. Joshipura, R. Jiang, F. B. Hu, D. Hunter, S. A. Smith-Warner, G. A. Colditz, B. Rosner, D. Spiegelman and W. C. Willett, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 96, 1577 (2004).Google Scholar
  179. [179]
    S. T. Mayne, J. Nutr., 133, 933S (2003).Google Scholar
  180. [180]
    F. B. Hu, Am J. Clin. Nutr., 78, 544S (2003).Google Scholar
  181. [181]
    J. M. Gaziano, J. E. Manson, L. G. Branch, G. A. Colditz, W. C. Willett and J. E. Buring, Ann. Epidemiol., 5, 255 (1995).Google Scholar
  182. [182]
    B. Buijsse, E. J. Feskens, L. Kwape, F. J. Kok and D. Kromhout, J. Nutr., 138, 344 (2008).Google Scholar
  183. [183]
    G. Riccioni, T. Bucciarelli, N. D’Orazio, N. Palumbo, E. di Ilio, F. Corradi, A. Pennelli and L. A. Bazzano, Ann. Nutr. Metab., 53, 86 (2008).Google Scholar
  184. [184]
    A. Schatzkin and V. Kipnis, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 96, 1564 (2004).Google Scholar
  185. [185]
    I. A. Hininger, A. Meyer-Wenger, U. Moser, A. Wright, S. Southon, D. Thurnham, M. Chopra, H. Van Den Berg, B. Olmedilla, A. E. Favier and A. M. Roussel, J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 20, 232 (2001).Google Scholar
  186. [186]
    H. van den Berg and T. van Vliet, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 68, 82 (1998).Google Scholar
  187. [187]
    I. Paetau, H. Chen, N. M. Goh and W. S. White, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 66, 1133 (1997).Google Scholar
  188. [188]
    D. Kostic, W. S. White and J. A. Olson, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 62, 604 (1995).Google Scholar
  189. [189]
    W. S. White, M. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, J. W. Erdman Jr. and P. E. Bowen, J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 13, 665 (1994).Google Scholar
  190. [190]
    B. R. Hammond Jr., J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten and D. M. Snodderly, Vision Res., 36, 2001 (1996).Google Scholar
  191. [191]
    B. R. Hammond Jr., K. Fuld and D. M. Snodderly, Exp. Eye Res., 62, 293 (1996).Google Scholar
  192. [192]
    J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi and W. Willet, JAMA, 272, 1413 (1994).Google Scholar
  193. [193]
    J. T. Landrum and R. A. Bone, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 385, 28 (2001).Google Scholar
  194. [194]
    R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains and J. Zamor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 34, 2033 (1993).Google Scholar
  195. [195]
    G. J. Handelman, E. A. Dratz, C. C. Reay and J. G. van Kuijk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 29, 850 (1988).Google Scholar
  196. [196]
    E. Cho, S. E. Hankinson, B. Rosner, W. C. Willett and G. A. Colditz, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 87, 1837 (2008).Google Scholar
  197. [197]
    H. E. Bartlett and F. Eperjesi, Clin. Nutr., 27, 218 (2008).Google Scholar
  198. [198]
    R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. M. Friedes, C. M. Gomez, M. D. Kilburn, E. Menendez, I. Vidal and W. Wang, Exp. Eye Res., 64, 211 (1997).Google Scholar
  199. [199]
    B. R. Hammond Jr., E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards and D. M. Snodderly, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 38, 1795 (1997).Google Scholar
  200. [200]
    W. G. Christen, S. Liu, R. J. Glynn, J. M. Gaziano and J. E. Buring, Arch. Ophthalmol., 126, 102 (2008).Google Scholar
  201. [201]
    M. Dherani, G. V. Murthy, S. K. Gupta, I. S. Young, G. Maraini, M. Camparini, G. M. Price, N. John, U. Chakravarthy and A. E. Fletcher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 49, 3328 (2008).Google Scholar
  202. [202]
    T. H. Wu, J. H. Liao, W. C. Hou, F. Y. Huang, T. J. Maher and C. C. Hu, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2418 (2006).Google Scholar
  203. [203]
    M. Santocono, M. Zurria, M. Berrettini, D. Fedeli and G. Falcioni, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, 85, 205 (2006).Google Scholar
  204. [204]
    O. Obajimi, K. D. Black, I. Glen and B. M. Ross, Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, 76, 65 (2007).Google Scholar
  205. [205]
    G. Hussein, H. Goto, S. Oda, U. Sankawa, K. Matsumoto and H. Watanabe, Biol. Pharm. Bull., 29, 684 (2006).Google Scholar
  206. [206]
    B. Fuhrman, N. Volkova, M. Rosenblat and M. Aviram, Antioxid. Redox Signal., 2, 491 (2000).Google Scholar
  207. [207]
    F. Visioli, P. Riso, S. Grande, C. Galli and M. Porrini, Eur. J. Nutr., 42, 201 (2003).Google Scholar
  208. [208]
    A. V. Rao, Exp. Biol. Med., 227, 908 (2002).Google Scholar
  209. [209]
    S. Schwarz, U. C. Obermüller-Jevic, E. Hellmis, W. Koch, G. Jacobi and H. K. Biesalski, J. Nutr., 138, 49 (2008).Google Scholar
  210. [210]
    C. Liu, R. M. Russell and X. D. Wang, J. Nutr., 133, 173 (2003).Google Scholar
  211. [211]
    X. D. Wang, J. Nutr., 135, 2053S (2005).Google Scholar
  212. [212]
    C. Liu, R. M. Russell and X. D. Wang, J. Nutr., 136, 106 (2006).Google Scholar
  213. [213]
    C. Liu, F. Lian, D. E. Smith, R. M. Russell and X. D. Wang, Cancer Res., 63, 3138 (2003).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyung-Jin Yeum
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Aldini
    • 2
  • Robert M. Russell
    • 3
  • Norman I. Krinsky
    • 4
  1. 1.Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on AgingTufts UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  3. 3.National Institutes of HealthWashington DCUSA
  4. 4.Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Department of BiochemistryTufts UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations