Carotenoids pp 15-36 | Cite as

E/Z Isomers and Isomerization

  • Synnøve Liaaen-Jensen
  • Bjart Frode Lutnœes
Part of the Carotenoids book series (CAROT, volume 4)


The natural occurrence of several carotenoid cis isomers and their biological significance were not anticipated in 1962, when the classical monograph on cis-trans isomeric carotenoids [1] was published. More recent research has demonstrated that various cis isomers occur naturally in bacteria plants, algae and invertebrate animals, and are present in human blood and tissues. The participation of cis isomers in the biosynthethic route to coloured carotenoids is well established (Volume 3, Chapter 2). Important biological functions of (15Z)-carotenoids in photosynthesis have been revealed [2]. In relation to health aspects of carotenoids, the bioavailability of cis isomers may be higher than that of the all-trans isomer [3], and accumulated evidence suggests that cis/trans isomerization may occur in biological tissues, particularly of lycopene (31) in human serum [4] (Volume 5, Chapter 7).


Geometrical Isomer Polyene Chain Exocyclic Double Bond Diphenyl Diselenide Photochemical Isomerization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Synnøve Liaaen-Jensen
    • 1
  • Bjart Frode Lutnœes
    • 2
  1. 1.Organic Chemistry Laboratories Department of ChemistryNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  2. 2.BFLBorregaard Ind. Ltd. Borregaard Corporate R&DSarpsborgNorway

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